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      Duloxetine for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome

      , ,

      Journal of pain research

      Dove Medical Press

      fibromyalgia, duloxetine, SNRI, safety

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          Abstract

          Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a widespread pain condition associated with a wide range of additional symptoms including fatigue, insomnia, depression, anxiety and stiffness. Duloxetine is one of three medications currently FDA approved for use in FMS management. Duloxetine is a mixed serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) that functions by increasing central nervous system levels of serotonin and norepinephrine. This review is a primer on use of duloxetine in FMS management and includes information on pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, a review of the three duloxetine FMS treatment trials currently in publication, a discussion of the safety and tolerability of duloxetine, and patient-focused perspectives on duloxetine use in FMS management. Duloxetine has proven efficacy in managing pain and mood symptoms in adult FMS patients with and without major depressive disorder. However, due to side effects, duloxetine must be used with caution in patients with fatigue, insomnia, gastrointestinal complaints, headache, cardiovascular disease, bleeding-risk, and in those 24 years of age and younger due to risk of suicidality. Duloxetine use should be avoided in patients with liver disease or alcoholics. As with all medications, duloxetine is best used as part of an individualized regimen that includes nonpharmacologic modalities of exercise, education and behavioral therapies.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Atypical antipsychotic drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death.

          Users of typical antipsychotic drugs have an increased risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, less is known regarding the cardiac safety of the atypical antipsychotic drugs, which have largely replaced the older agents in clinical practice. We calculated the adjusted incidence of sudden cardiac death among current users of antipsychotic drugs in a retrospective cohort study of Medicaid enrollees in Tennessee. The primary analysis included 44,218 and 46,089 baseline users of single typical and atypical drugs, respectively, and 186,600 matched nonusers of antipsychotic drugs. To assess residual confounding related to factors associated with the use of antipsychotic drugs, we performed a secondary analysis of users of antipsychotic drugs who had no baseline diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychoses and with whom nonusers were matched according to propensity score (i.e., the predicted probability that they would be users of antipsychotic drugs). Current users of typical and of atypical antipsychotic drugs had higher rates of sudden cardiac death than did nonusers of antipsychotic drugs, with adjusted incidence-rate ratios of 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68 to 2.34) and 2.26 (95% CI, 1.88 to 2.72), respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for users of atypical antipsychotic drugs as compared with users of typical antipsychotic drugs was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.39). Former users of antipsychotic drugs had no significantly increased risk (incidence-rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.30). For both classes of drugs, the risk for current users increased significantly with an increasing dose. Among users of typical antipsychotic drugs, the incidence-rate ratios increased from 1.31 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.77) for those taking low doses to 2.42 (95% CI, 1.91 to 3.06) for those taking high doses (P<0.001). Among users of atypical agents, the incidence-rate ratios increased from 1.59 (95% CI, 1 .03 to 2.46) for those taking low doses to 2.86 (95% CI, 2.25 to 3.65) for those taking high doses (P=0.01). The findings were similar in the cohort that was matched for propensity score. Current users of typical and of atypical antipsychotic drugs had a similar, dose-related increased risk of sudden cardiac death. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            EULAR evidence-based recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome.

            To develop evidence-based recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome. A multidisciplinary task force was formed representing 11 European countries. The design of the study, including search strategy, participants, interventions, outcome measures, data collection and analytical method, was defined at the outset. A systematic review was undertaken with the keywords "fibromyalgia", "treatment or management" and "trial". Studies were excluded if they did not utilise the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria, were not clinical trials, or included patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis. Primary outcome measures were change in pain assessed by visual analogue scale and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire. The quality of the studies was categorised based on randomisation, blinding and allocation concealment. Only the highest quality studies were used to base recommendations on. When there was insufficient evidence from the literature, a Delphi process was used to provide basis for recommendation. 146 studies were eligible for the review. 39 pharmacological intervention studies and 59 non-pharmacological were included in the final recommendation summary tables once those of a lower quality or with insufficient data were separated. The categories of treatment identified were antidepressants, analgesics, and "other pharmacological" and exercise, cognitive behavioural therapy, education, dietary interventions and "other non-pharmacological". In many studies sample size was small and the quality of the study was insufficient for strong recommendations to be made. Nine recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome were developed using a systematic review and expert consensus.
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              A double-blind, multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients with or without major depressive disorder.

              To assess the efficacy and safety of duloxetine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in subjects with primary fibromyalgia, with or without current major depressive disorder. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 18 outpatient research centers in the US. A total of 207 subjects meeting the American College of Rheumatology criteria for primary fibromyalgia were enrolled (89% female, 87% white, mean age 49 years, 38% with current major depressive disorder). After single-blind placebo treatment for 1 week, subjects were randomly assigned to receive duloxetine 60 mg twice a day (n = 104) or placebo (n = 103) for 12 weeks. Co-primary outcome measures were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total score (score range 0-80, with 0 indicating no impact) and FIQ pain score (score range 0-10). Secondary outcome measures included mean tender point pain threshold, number of tender points, FIQ fatigue, tiredness on awakening, and stiffness scores, Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-Severity) scale, Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-Improvement) scale, Brief Pain Inventory (short form), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, Quality of Life in Depression Scale, and Sheehan Disability Scale. Compared with placebo-treated subjects, duloxetine-treated subjects improved significantly more (P = 0.027) on the FIQ total score, with a treatment difference of -5.53 (95% confidence interval -10.43, -0.63), but not significantly more on the FIQ pain score (P = 0.130). Compared with placebo-treated subjects, duloxetine-treated subjects had significantly greater reductions in Brief Pain Inventory average pain severity score (P = 0.008), Brief Pain Inventory average interference from pain score (P = 0.004), number of tender points (P = 0.002), and FIQ stiffness score (P = 0.048), and had significantly greater improvement in mean tender point pain threshold (P = 0.002), CGI-Severity (P = 0.048), PGI-Improvement (P = 0.033), and several quality-of-life measures. Duloxetine treatment improved fibromyalgia symptoms and pain severity regardless of baseline status of major depressive disorder. Compared with placebo-treated female subjects (n = 92), duloxetine-treated female subjects (n = 92) demonstrated significantly greater improvement on most efficacy measures, while duloxetine-treated male subjects (n = 12) failed to improve significantly on any efficacy measure. The treatment effect on significant pain reduction in female subjects was independent of the effect on mood or anxiety. Duloxetine was safely administered and well tolerated. In this randomized, controlled, 12-week trial (with a 1-week placebo lead-in phase), duloxetine was an effective and safe treatment for many of the symptoms associated with fibromyalgia in subjects with or without major depressive disorder, particularly for women, who had significant improvement across most outcome measures.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of pain research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2009
                21 July 2009
                : 2
                : 99-108
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chad S Boomershine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt, University, T3219 MCN, 1161, 21st Ave South, Nashville, TN 37232-2681, USA, Tel +1 615-322-4746, Fax +1 615-322-6248, Email chad.boomershine@ 123456vanderbilt.edu
                Article
                jpr-2-099
                3004624
                21197298
                © 2009 Scholz et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                safety, snri, duloxetine, fibromyalgia

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