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      Biology and Control of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium, a Major Quarantine Threat to Global Food Security

      1 , 2 , 3
      Annual Review of Entomology
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, is a voracious feeder of stored products and is considered one of the most important quarantine pests globally. Its ability to survive for long periods under extreme conditions facilitates its spread through international commerce, which has led to invasions of new geographic regions. The khapra beetle is an important quarantine pest for many countries, including the major wheat-producing countries the United States, Canada, Russia, and Australia, and has been classified as one of the 100 worst invasive species worldwide. This species cannot always be controlled by insecticides and other nonchemical methods that are usually effective against other pests of stored products, particularly owing to its diapausing late larval stage. It can rapidly develop at elevated temperatures and under dry conditions, which are not favorable for many major stored-product insects. We synthesize key published work to draw attention to advances in biology, detection and control of the khapra beetle, and directions to consider for future research.

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          Biorational approaches to managing stored-product insects.

          Stored-product insects can cause postharvest losses, estimated from up to 9% in developed countries to 20% or more in developing countries. There is much interest in alternatives to conventional insecticides for controlling stored-product insects because of insecticide loss due to regulatory action and insect resistance, and because of increasing consumer demand for product that is free of insects and insecticide residues. Sanitation is perhaps the first line of defense for grain stored at farms or elevators and for food-processing and warehouse facilities. Some of the most promising biorational management tools for farm-stored grain are temperature management and use of natural enemies. New tools for computer-assisted decision-making and insect sampling at grain elevators appear most promising. Processing facilities and warehouses usually rely on trap captures for decision-making, a process that needs further research to optimize.
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            Cross-tolerance and cross-talk in the cold: relating low temperatures to desiccation and immune stress in insects.

            Multiple stressors, both abiotic and biotic, often are experienced simultaneously by organisms in nature. Responses to these stressors may share signaling pathways ("cross-talk") or protective mechanisms ("cross-tolerance"). Temperate and polar insects that must survive the winter experience low temperatures accompanied by additional abiotic stressors, such as low availability of water. Cold and desiccation have many similar effects at a cellular level, and we present evidence that the cellular mechanisms that protect against cold stress also protect against desiccation, and that the responses to cold and dehydration likely evolved as cross-tolerance. By contrast, there are several lines of evidence suggesting that low temperature stress elicits an upregulation of immune responses in insects (and vice versa). Because there is little mechanistic overlap between cold stress and immune stress at the cellular level, we suggest that this is cross-talk. Both cross-talk and cross-tolerance may be adaptive and likely evolved in response to synchronous stressors; however, we suggest that cross-talk and cross-tolerance may lead to different responses to changes in the timing and severity of multiple stress interactions in a changing world. We present a framework describing the potentially different responses of cross-tolerance and cross-talk to a changing environment and describe the nature of these impacts using interaction of cold-desiccation and cold-immunity in overwintering insects as an example.
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              Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects.

              Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual situations will require their own type of pest control techniques, but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide, and heat.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Entomology
                Annu. Rev. Entomol.
                Annual Reviews
                0066-4170
                1545-4487
                January 07 2019
                January 07 2019
                : 64
                : 1
                : 131-148
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Department of Agriculture Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Nea Ionia, Magnesia 384 46, Greece;
                [2 ]Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-4004, USA;
                [3 ]Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan;
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-ento-011118-111804
                30285491
                e74ed03e-4cd4-4ee9-9062-59908654770b
                © 2019
                History

                Quantitative & Systems biology,Biophysics
                Quantitative & Systems biology, Biophysics

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