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      Genetics of Intracranial Aneurysms

      1 , 1 , 1

      Stroke

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion.

          Two types of treatment are being used for patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: endovascular detachable-coil treatment or craniotomy and clipping. We undertook a randomised, multicentre trial to compare these treatments in patients who were suitable for either treatment because the relative safety and efficacy of these approaches had not been established. Here we present clinical outcomes 1 year after treatment. 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms, who were admitted to 42 neurosurgical centres, mainly in the UK and Europe, took part in the trial. They were randomly assigned to neurosurgical clipping (n=1070) or endovascular coiling (n=1073). The primary outcome was death or dependence at 1 year (defined by a modified Rankin scale of 3-6). Secondary outcomes included rebleeding from the treated aneurysm and risk of seizures. Long-term follow up continues. Analysis was in accordance with the randomised treatment. We report the 1-year outcomes for 1063 of 1073 patients allocated to endovascular treatment, and 1055 of 1070 patients allocated to neurosurgical treatment. 250 (23.5%) of 1063 patients allocated to endovascular treatment were dead or dependent at 1 year, compared with 326 (30.9%) of 1055 patients allocated to neurosurgery, an absolute risk reduction of 7.4% (95% CI 3.6-11.2, p=0.0001). The early survival advantage was maintained for up to 7 years and was significant (log rank p=0.03). The risk of epilepsy was substantially lower in patients allocated to endovascular treatment, but the risk of late rebleeding was higher. In patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms suitable for both treatments, endovascular coiling is more likely to result in independent survival at 1 year than neurosurgical clipping; the survival benefit continues for at least 7 years. The risk of late rebleeding is low, but is more common after endovascular coiling than after neurosurgical clipping.
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            Prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, with emphasis on sex, age, comorbidity, country, and time period: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are increasingly detected and are an important health-care burden. We aimed to assess the prevalence of UIAs according to family history, comorbidity, sex, age, country, and time period. Through searches of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science we updated our 1998 systematic review up to March, 2011. We calculated prevalences and prevalence ratios (PRs) with random-effects binomial meta-analysis. We assessed time trends with year of study as a continuous variable. We included 68 studies, which reported on 83 study populations and 1450 UIAs in 94 912 patients from 21 countries. The overall prevalence was estimated as 3·2% (95% CI 1·9-5·2) in a population without comorbidity, with a mean age of 50 years, and consisting of 50% men. Compared with populations without the comorbidity, PRs were 6·9 (95% CI 3·5-14) for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), 3·4 (1·9-5·9) for a positive family history of intracranial aneurysm of subarachnoid haemorrhage, 3·6 (0·4-30) for brain tumour, 2·0 (0·9-4·6) for pituitary adenoma, and 1·7 (0·9-3·0) for atherosclerosis. The PR for women compared with men was 1·61 (1·02-2·54), with a ratio of 2·2 (1·3-3·6) in study populations with a mean age of more than 50 years. Compared with patients older than 80 years, we found no differences by age, except for patients younger than 30 years (0·01, 0·00-0·12). Compared with the USA, PRs were similar for other countries, including Japan (0·8, 0·4-1·7) and Finland (1·0, 0·4-2·4). There was no statistically significant time trend. The prevalence of UIAs is higher in patients with ADPKD or a positive family history of intracranial aneurysm of subarachnoid haemorrhage than in people without comorbidity. In Finland and Japan, the higher incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage is not explained by a higher prevalence of UIAs, implicating higher risks of rupture. Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care and Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University Medical Centre, Utrecht. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Incidental findings on brain MRI in the general population.

              Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is increasingly used both in research and in clinical medicine, and scanner hardware and MRI sequences are continually being improved. These advances are likely to result in the detection of unexpected, asymptomatic brain abnormalities, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, and subclinical vascular pathologic changes. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of such incidental brain findings in the general population. The subjects were 2000 persons (mean age, 63.3 years; range, 45.7 to 96.7) from the population-based Rotterdam Study in whom high-resolution, structural brain MRI (1.5 T) was performed according to a standardized protocol. Two trained reviewers recorded all brain abnormalities, including asymptomatic brain infarcts. The volume of white-matter lesions was quantified in milliliters with the use of automated postprocessing techniques. Two experienced neuroradiologists reviewed all incidental findings. All diagnoses were based on MRI findings, and additional histologic confirmation was not obtained. Asymptomatic brain infarcts were present in 145 persons (7.2%). Among findings other than infarcts, cerebral aneurysms (1.8%) and benign primary tumors (1.6%), mainly meningiomas, were the most frequent. The prevalence of asymptomatic brain infarcts and meningiomas increased with age, as did the volume of white-matter lesions, whereas aneurysms showed no age-related increase in prevalence. Incidental brain findings on MRI, including subclinical vascular pathologic changes, are common in the general population. The most frequent are brain infarcts, followed by cerebral aneurysms and benign primary tumors. Information on the natural course of these lesions is needed to inform clinical management. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Stroke
                Stroke
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0039-2499
                1524-4628
                March 2018
                March 2018
                : 49
                : 3
                : 780-787
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Montréal Neurological Institute and Hospital (S.Z., P.A.D., G.A.R.) and Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (P.A.D., G.A.R.), McGill University, Québec, Canada; and Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada (S.Z.).
                Article
                10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.018152
                © 2018

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