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      Diabetic nephropathy – complications and treatment

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          Abstract

          Diabetic nephropathy is a significant cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure globally. Much research has been conducted in both basic science and clinical therapeutics, which has enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy and expanded the potential therapies available. This review will examine the current concepts of diabetic nephropathy management in the context of some of the basic science and pathophysiology aspects relevant to the approaches taken in novel, investigative treatment strategies.

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          Most cited references 192

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          MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin in 5963 people with diabetes: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

          Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, although typically their plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol are similar to those in the general population. Previous evidence about the effects of lowering cholesterol in people with diabetes has been limited, and most diabetic patients do not currently receive cholesterol-lowering therapy despite their increased risk. 5963 UK adults (aged 40-80 years) known to have diabetes, and an additional 14573 with occlusive arterial disease (but no diagnosed diabetes), were randomly allocated to receive 40 mg simvastatin daily or matching placebo. Prespecified analyses in these prior disease subcategories, and other relevant subcategories, were of first major coronary event (ie, non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death) and of first major vascular event (ie, major coronary event, stroke or revascularisation). Analyses were also conducted of subsequent vascular events during the scheduled treatment period. Comparisons are of all simvastatin-allocated versus all placebo-allocated participants (ie, intention to treat), which yielded an average difference in LDL cholesterol of 1.0 mmol/L (39 mg/dL) during the 5-year treatment period. Both among the participants who presented with diabetes and among those who did not, there were highly significant reductions of about a quarter in the first event rate for major coronary events, for strokes, and for revascularisations. For the first occurrence of any of these major vascular events among participants with diabetes, there was a definite 22% (95% CI 13-30) reduction in the event rate (601 [20.2%] simvastatin-allocated vs 748 [25.1%] placebo-allocated, p<0.0001), which was similar to that among the other high-risk individuals studied. There were also highly significant reductions of 33% (95% CI 17-46, p=0.0003) among the 2912 diabetic participants who did not have any diagnosed occlusive arterial disease at entry, and of 27% (95% CI 13-40, p=0.0007) among the 2426 diabetic participants whose pretreatment LDL cholesterol concentration was below 3.0 mmol/L (116 mg/dL). The proportional reduction in risk was also about a quarter among various other subcategories of diabetic patient studied, including: those with different duration, type, or control of diabetes; those aged over 65 years at entry or with hypertension; and those with total cholesterol below 5.0 mmol/L (193 mg/dL). In addition, among participants who had a first major vascular event following randomisation, allocation to simvastatin reduced the rate of subsequent events during the scheduled treatment period. The present study provides direct evidence that cholesterol-lowering therapy is beneficial for people with diabetes even if they do not already have manifest coronary disease or high cholesterol concentrations. Allocation to 40 mg simvastatin daily reduced the rate of first major vascular events by about a quarter in a wide range of diabetic patients studied. After making allowance for non-compliance, actual use of this statin regimen would probably reduce these rates by about a third. For example, among the type of diabetic patient studied without occlusive arterial disease, 5 years of treatment would be expected to prevent about 45 people per 1000 from having at least one major vascular event (and, among these 45 people, to prevent about 70 first or subsequent events during this treatment period). Statin therapy should now be considered routinely for all diabetic patients at sufficiently high risk of major vascular events, irrespective of their initial cholesterol concentrations.
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            Multipotent stromal cells from human marrow home to and promote repair of pancreatic islets and renal glomeruli in diabetic NOD/scid mice.

            We tested the hypothesis that multipotent stromal cells from human bone marrow (hMSCs) can provide a potential therapy for human diabetes mellitus. Severe but nonlethal hyperglycemia was produced in NOD/scid mice with daily low doses of streptozotocin on days 1-4, and hMSCs were delivered via intracardiac infusion on days 10 and 17. The hMSCs lowered blood glucose levels in the diabetic mice on day 32 relative to untreated controls (18.34 mM +/- 1.12 SE vs. 27.78 mM +/- 2.45 SE, P = 0.0019). ELISAs demonstrated that blood levels of mouse insulin were higher in the hMSC-treated as compared with untreated diabetic mice, but human insulin was not detected. PCR assays detected human Alu sequences in DNA in pancreas and kidney on day 17 or 32 but not in other tissues, except heart, into which the cells were infused. In the hMSC-treated diabetic mice, there was an increase in pancreatic islets and beta cells producing mouse insulin. Rare islets contained human cells that colabeled for human insulin or PDX-1. Most of the beta cells in the islets were mouse cells that expressed mouse insulin. In kidneys of hMSC-treated diabetic mice, human cells were found in the glomeruli. There was a decrease in mesangial thickening and a decrease in macrophage infiltration. A few of the human cells appeared to differentiate into glomerular endothelial cells. Therefore, the results raised the possibility that hMSCs may be useful in enhancing insulin secretion and perhaps improving the renal lesions that develop in patients with diabetes mellitus.
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              Nephropathy in diabetes.

               F Keane,  Michael Steffes,   (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis
                Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis
                International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
                International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7058
                2014
                15 October 2014
                : 7
                : 361-381
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, Monash Medical Center, Monash Health, Clayton, VIC, Australia
                [2 ]Department of General Medicine, Dandenong Hospital, Monash Health, Clayton, VIC, Australia
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Andy Lim, Department of Nephrology, Monash Medical Center, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia, Tel +61 3 9594 6666, Fax +61 3 9594 6730, Email andy.lim@ 123456monash.edu
                Article
                ijnrd-7-361
                10.2147/IJNRD.S40172
                4206379
                25342915
                © 2014 Lim. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Nephrology

                inflammation, kidney disease, albuminuria, diabetic nephropathy, diabetes

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