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      Improved Arteriogenesis with Simultaneous Skeletal Muscle Repair in Ischemic Tissue by SCL+ Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cell Clones from Peripheral Blood

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          Abstract

          Background: The CD34– murine stem cell line RM26 cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been shown to generate hematopoietic progeny in lethally irradiated animals. The peripheral blood-derived cell clones expresses a variety of mesodermal and erythroid/myeloid transcription factors suggesting a multipotent differentiation potential like the bone marrow-derived ‘multipotent adult progenitor cells’ (MAP-C). Methods: SCL+ CD34– RM26 cells were transfused intravenously into mice suffering from chronic hind-limb ischemia, evaluating the effect of stem cells on collateral artery growth and simultaneous skeletal muscle repair. Results: RM26 cells are capable of differentiating in vitro into endothelial cells when cultured on the appropriate collagen matrix. Activation of the SCL stem cell enhancer (SCL+) is mediated through the binding to two Ets and one GATA site and cells start to express milieu- and growth condition-dependent levels of the endothelial markers CD31 (PECAM) and Flt-1 (VEGF-R1). Intravenously infused RM26 cells significantly improved the collateral blood flow (arteriogenesis) and neo-angiogenesis formation in a murine hind-limb ischemia transplant model. Although transplanted RM26 cells did not integrate into the growing collateral arteries, cells were found adjacent to local arteriogenesis, but instead integrated into the ischemic skeletal muscle exclusively in the affected limb for simultaneous tissue repair. Conclusion: These data suggest that molecularly primed hem-/mesangioblast-type adult progenitor cells can circulate in the peripheral blood improving perfusion of tissues with chronic ischemia and extending beyond the vascular compartment.

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          Most cited references20

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          Purification and ex vivo expansion of postnatal human marrow mesodermal progenitor cells.

          It is here reported that mesenchymal stem cells known to give rise to limb-bud mesoderm can, at the single-cell level, also differentiate into cells of visceral mesoderm and can be expanded extensively by means of clinically applicable methods. These cells were named mesodermal progenitor cells (MPCs). MPCs were selected by depleting bone marrow mononuclear cells from more than 30 healthy human donors of CD45(+)/glycophorin-A (GlyA)(+) cells. Cells were cultured on fibronectin with epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor BB and 2% or less fetal calf serum. It was found that 1/5 x 10(3) CD45(-)GlyA(-) cells, or 1/10(6) bone marrow mononuclear cells, gave rise to clusters of small adherent cells. Cell-doubling time was 48 to 72 hours, and cells have been expanded in culture for more than 60 cell doublings. MPCs are CD34(-), CD44(low), CD45(-), CD117 (cKit)(-), class I-HLA(-), and HLA-DR(-). MPCs differentiated into cells of limb-bud mesoderm (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, stroma cells, and skeletal myoblasts) as well as visceral mesoderm (endothelial cells). Retroviral marking was used to definitively prove that single MPCs can differentiate into cells of limb bud and visceral mesoderm. Thus, MPCs that proliferate without obvious senescence under clinically applicable conditions and differentiate at the single-cell level not only into mesenchymal cells but also cells of visceral mesoderm may be an ideal source of stem cells for treatment of genetic or degenerative disorders affecting cells of mesodermal origin.
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            Adult hematopoietic stem cells provide functional hemangioblast activity during retinal neovascularization.

            Adults maintain a reservoir of hematopoietic stem cells that can enter the circulation to reach organs in need of regeneration. We developed a novel model of retinal neovascularization in adult mice to examine the role of hematopoietic stem cells in revascularizing ischemic retinas. Adult mice were durably engrafted with hematopoietic stem cells isolated from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein. We performed serial long-term transplants, to ensure activity arose from self-renewing stem cells, and single hematopoietic stem-cell transplants to show clonality. After durable hematopoietic engraftment was established, retinal ischemia was induced to promote neovascularization. Our results indicate that self-renewing adult hematopoietic stem cells have functional hemangioblast activity, that is, they can clonally differentiate into all hematopoietic cell lineages as well as endothelial cells that revascularize adult retina. We also show that recruitment of endothelial precursors to sites of ischemic injury has a significant role in neovascularization.
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              Bone marrow-derived cells do not incorporate into the adult growing vasculature.

              Bone marrow-Derived cells have been proposed to form new vessels or at least incorporate into growing vessels in adult organisms under certain physiological and pathological conditions. We investigated whether bone marrow-Derived cells incorporate into vessels using mouse models of hindlimb ischemia (arteriogenesis and angiogenesis) and tumor growth. C57BL/6 wild-type mice were lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow cells from littermates expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). At least 6 weeks after bone marrow transplantation, the animals underwent unilateral femoral artery occlusions with or without pretreatment with vascular endothelial growth factor or were subcutaneously implanted with methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (BFS-1) cells. Seven and 21 days after surgery, proximal hindlimb muscles with growing collateral arteries and ischemic gastrocnemius muscles as well as grown tumors and various organs were excised for histological analysis. We failed to colocalize GFP signals with endothelial or smooth muscle cell markers. Occasionally, the use of high-power laser scanning confocal microscopy uncovered false-positive results because of overlap of different fluorescent signals from adjacent cells. Nevertheless, we observed accumulations of GFP-positive cells around growing collateral arteries (3-fold increase versus nonoccluded side, P<0.001) and in ischemic distal hindlimbs. These cells were identified as fibroblasts, pericytes, and primarily leukocytes that stained positive for several growth factors and chemokines. Our findings suggest that in the adult organism, bone marrow-Derived cells do not promote vascular growth by incorporating into vessel walls but may function as supporting cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2004
                October 2004
                19 November 2004
                : 41
                : 5
                : 422-431
                Affiliations
                aInstitute of Pathology, University of Munich, Munich, bMax Planck Institute for Physiology and Experimental Medicine, Department of Experimental Cardiology, Bad Nauheim, Germany; cCambridge Institute for Medical Research, Department of Haematology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK
                Article
                81441 J Vasc Res 2004;41:422–431
                10.1159/000081441
                15477694
                e75a07ec-4f49-43a6-a981-1a6a1c4adc23
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 02 June 2004
                : 13 August 2004
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 37, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Paper

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Arteriogenesis,Adult stem cells,Tissue repair,MAP-C,SCL

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