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      Diseases in marine invertebrates associated with mariculture and commercial fisheries

      a , * , b

      Journal of Sea Research

      Elsevier B.V.

      Sea cucumber, Mollusca, Crustacea, Bacteria, Virus, Phage

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          Abstract

          Diseases in marine invertebrates are increasing in both frequency and intensity around the globe. Diseases in individuals which offer some commercial value are often well documented and subsequently well studied in comparison to those wild groups offering little commercial gain. This is particularly the case with those associated with mariculture or the commercial fisheries. Specifically, these include many Holothuroidea, and numerous crustacea and mollusca species. Pathogens/parasites consisting of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes from all groups have been associated with diseases from such organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Viral pathogens in particular, appear to be an increasingly important group and research into this group will likely highlight a larger number of diseases and pathogens being described in the near future. Interestingly, although there are countless examples of the spread of disease usually associated with transportation of specific infected hosts for development of aquaculture practices, this process appears to be continuing with no real sign of effective management and mitigation strategies being implicated. Notably, even in well developed countries such as the UK and the US, even though live animal trade may be well managed, the transport of frozen food appears to be less well so and as evidence suggests, even these to have the potential to transmit pathogens when used as a food source for example.

          Graphical abstract

          Highlights

          • A wide variety of different pathogens cause a significant number of diseases in different marine invertebrates

          • Here we assess those plaguing species valuable in mariculture or as commercial fisheries

          • Importantly, although specific laws and regulations are put in place by many countries other routes such as viable pathogens present in frozen food can still offer a mode of transmission between different species

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          Most cited references 128

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          A summary of taxonomic changes recently approved by ICTV.

           Gwenda Mayo (2002)
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            Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp.

            A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus.
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              Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society.

              Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here we review current knowledge about how the climate drives host-pathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked for other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Sea Res
                J. Sea Res
                Journal of Sea Research
                Elsevier B.V.
                1385-1101
                1873-1414
                2 July 2015
                October 2015
                2 July 2015
                : 104
                : 16-32
                Affiliations
                [a ]Molecular Health and Disease Laboratory, University of Derby, DE22 1GB, UK
                [b ]European Union Reference Laboratory for Crustacean Diseases, CEFAS, Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. m.sweet@ 123456derby.ac.uk
                Article
                S1385-1101(15)30018-6
                10.1016/j.seares.2015.06.016
                7172736
                Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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                sea cucumber, mollusca, crustacea, bacteria, virus, phage

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