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      Practical Guidelines: Lung Transplantation in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

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          Abstract

          There are no European recommendations on issues specifically related to lung transplantation (LTX) in cystic fibrosis (CF). The main goal of this paper is to provide CF care team members with clinically relevant CF-specific information on all aspects of LTX, highlighting areas of consensus and controversy throughout Europe. Bilateral lung transplantation has been shown to be an important therapeutic option for end-stage CF pulmonary disease. Transplant function and patient survival after transplantation are better than in most other indications for this procedure. Attention though has to be paid to pretransplant morbidity, time for referral, evaluation, indication, and contraindication in children and in adults. This review makes extensive use of specific evidence in the field of lung transplantation in CF patients and addresses all issues of practical importance. The requirements of pre-, peri-, and postoperative management are discussed in detail including bridging to transplant and postoperative complications, immune suppression, chronic allograft dysfunction, infection, and malignancies being the most important. Among the contributors to this guiding information are 19 members of the ECORN-CF project and other experts. The document is endorsed by the European Cystic Fibrosis Society and sponsored by the Christiane Herzog Foundation.

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          Most cited references 275

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          Voriconazole versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis.

          Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole that is active against aspergillus species. We conducted a randomized trial to compare voriconazole with amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. In this randomized, unblinded trial, patients received either intravenous voriconazole (two doses of 6 mg per kilogram of body weight on day 1, then 4 mg per kilogram twice daily for at least seven days) followed by 200 mg orally twice daily or intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 to 1.5 mg per kilogram per day). Other licensed antifungal treatments were allowed if the initial therapy failed or if the patient had an intolerance to the first drug used. A complete or partial response was considered to be a successful outcome. A total of 144 patients in the voriconazole group and 133 patients in the amphotericin B group with definite or probable aspergillosis received at least one dose of treatment. In most of the patients, the underlying condition was allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation, acute leukemia, or other hematologic diseases. At week 12, there were successful outcomes in 52.8 percent of the patients in the voriconazole group (complete responses in 20.8 percent and partial responses in 31.9 percent) and 31.6 percent of those in the amphotericin B group (complete responses in 16.5 percent and partial responses in 15.0 percent; absolute difference, 21.2 percentage points; 95 percent confidence interval, 10.4 to 32.9). The survival rate at 12 weeks was 70.8 percent in the voriconazole group and 57.9 percent in the amphotericin B group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.88). Voriconazole-treated patients had significantly fewer severe drug-related adverse events, but transient visual disturbances were common with voriconazole (occurring in 44.8 percent of patients). In patients with invasive aspergillosis, initial therapy with voriconazole led to better responses and improved survival and resulted in fewer severe side effects than the standard approach of initial therapy with amphotericin B. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome 2001: an update of the diagnostic criteria.

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              Revision of the 1996 working formulation for the standardization of nomenclature in the diagnosis of lung rejection.

              In 1990, an international grading scheme for the grading of pulmonary allograft rejection was adopted by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) and was modified in 1995 by an expanded group of pathologists. The original and revised classifications have served the lung transplant community well, facilitating communication between transplant centers with regard to both patient management and research. In 2006, under the direction of the ISHLT, a multi-disciplinary review of the biopsy grading system was undertaken to update the scheme, address inconsistencies of use, and consider the current knowledge of antibody-mediated rejection in the lung. This article summarizes the revised consensus classification of lung allograft rejection. In brief, acute rejection is based on perivascular and interstitial mononuclear infiltrates, Grade A0 (none), Grade A1 (minimal), Grade A2 (mild), Grade A3 (moderate) and Grade A4 (severe), as previously. The revised (R) categories of small airways inflammation, lymphocytic bronchiolitis, are as follows: Grade B0 (none), Grade B1R (low grade, 1996, B1 and B2), Grade B2R (high grade, 1996, B3 and B4) and BX (ungradeable). Chronic rejection, obliterative bronchiolitis (Grade C), is described as present (C1) or absent (C0), without reference to presence of inflammatory activity. Chronic vascular rejection is unchanged as Grade D. Recommendations are made for the evaluation of antibody-mediated rejection, recognizing that this is a controversial entity in the lung, less well developed and understood than in other solid-organ grafts, and with no consensus reached on diagnostic features. Differential diagnoses of acute rejection, airway inflammation and chronic rejection are described and technical considerations revisited. This consensus revision of the working formulation was approved by the ISHLT board of directors in April 2007.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pulm Med
                Pulm Med
                PM
                Pulmonary Medicine
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-1836
                2090-1844
                2014
                30 March 2014
                : 2014
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, German Clinic for Diagnostics (DKD), Wiesbaden, Germany
                2Department of Chest Medicine, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium
                3Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Germany
                4Regional Adult CF Centre, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast, UK
                5Lung Transplant Unit, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain
                6Centre for Infection and Immunity, Queens University, Belfast and Adult CF Centre BHSCT, UK
                7Cystic Fibrosis Center, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
                8Paediatric Respiratory Medicine and Lung Transplantation, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK
                9Institute for Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany
                10Department of Pneumology, Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany
                11Department of Pneumology, Frankfurt University Hospital, Building 15B,Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Charlie Strange

                Article
                10.1155/2014/621342
                3988894
                24800072
                Copyright © 2014 T. O. Hirche et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Respiratory medicine

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