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      Effects of Chronic Hypogonadism on Corticosterone Secretion and Cyclic AMP Production in Male Rat Adrenocortical Cells

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          Abstract

          Aim: To determine the secretion of corticosterone (CCS) both in vivo and in vitro during different intervals after orchidectomy in male rats. Methods: Three- and 12-month-old rats had been orchidectomized 0, 3, 6, or 9 months before decapitation. Results: Orchidectomy increased the concentrations of plasma CCS, the basal release of CCS, and the adenosine 3′, 5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production in rat zona fasciculata reticularis (ZFR) cells. The forskolin/3-isobutyl- l-methylxanthine-stimulated releases of CCS and cAMP production by ZFR cells were higher in rats with chronic hypogonadism. The CCS release from ZFR cells of orchidectomized rat was not altered by 8-bromo-cAMP treatment. Orchidectomy enhanced the stimulatory effect of deoxycorticosterone on CCS release in ZFR cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that orchidectomy-related increases of CCS secretion in rats are associated with an increase of adenylate cyclase activity, cAMP generation, and 11-β-hydroxylase activity in ZFR cells.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Androgen regulation of adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone secretion in the male rat following novelty and foot shock stressors

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            Gene expression of progesterone receptor isoforms in the rat brain.

            Progesterone receptors (PRs) are known to exist in two forms: a larger molecular, form B, and a smaller one, form A. Rat PR cDNA corresponding to the region around the translation-initiation site (ATGB) of the putative PR form B mRNA was cloned, together with cloning of steroid-binding domain of the PR forms A and B. An imperfect "estrogen responsive element," GGTCG*** TGACT, was located around ATGB of the rat PR cDNA. The distribution of PR mRNA-containing neurons was mapped in the female adult rat brain by in situ hybridization, which was largely in agreement with that of PR proteins. Differential intracerebral distribution of the mRNAs, measured by the quantitative RT-PCR Southern blotting assay, was found between the total (A+B) and form B mRNA levels, indicating possible distinct mechanisms responsible for regulation of the expression of the PR mRNAs. A region-specific and stage-related gene expression of form B seems predominantly to be "turned on" first around birth, followed by that of form A around Days 8-12. The postnatal developmental pattern of PR form B mRNA in the cerebral cortex resembled that of the PR proteins. Noninducibility of the cortical PR by estrogen might be ascribable to the predominance of form B mRNA, which was reported to have little or no estrogen inducibility. A missmatch existed between PR from A and its mRNA levels, suggesting some impairment of the synthesis of form A. Thyroid hormone may be a regulator of gene expression of the receptor in the developing cortex.
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              Behavioral and hormonal responses to corticosterone in the male red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis.

              Stress and glucocorticoids are generally thought to suppress reproductive function at multiple levels. We tested the hypotheses that exogenous corticosterone would suppress sexual behavior in a dose-dependent manner, as well as drive a decrease in plasma testosterone levels in the male red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We examined this by challenging individual males with intraperitoneal injections of exogenous corticosterone, and subsequently exposing them to sexually attractive females or taking a blood sample. Previous work has demonstrated a hormonal but no behavioral response to stress in this species. In this study, increasing concentrations of exogenous corticosterone rapidly suppressed mating behavior in a threshold manner. However, exogenous corticosterone had no effect on plasma levels of testosterone. Thus, these data suggest that the mechanism is in place for corticosterone to suppress mating behavior in this species and that these effects do not occur because of an indirect effect on plasma levels of testosterone but rather are the direct effect of the hormone itself. In addition, the negative relationship observed previously between plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone in this species was probably not the direct result of corticosterone acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Rather, our results seem to indicate that the negative associations between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the HPG axis occur at other levels of these neuroendocrine pathways.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2004
                March 2004
                02 March 2004
                : 61
                : 2
                : 84-91
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Physical Therapy, Hungkuang University, Taichung, bNational Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, and cDepartment of Physiology, School of Life Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
                Article
                75386 Horm Res 2004;61:84–91
                10.1159/000075386
                14665798
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 26, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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