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      Uso de aplicaciones móviles para intervenciones nutricionales Translated title: Use of mobile applications for nutritional interventions

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          Abstract

          Resumen: Existen varias aplicaciones móviles disponibles relacionadas a la nutrición, como aplicaciones que cuentan las calorías, que ofrecen una puntuación a los alimentos, que generan un plan dietético, y/o que generan una lista saludable de compras. Algunas aplicaciones tienen varias de estas funciones en la misma aplicación. Dichas aplicaciones móviles pueden ser herramientas efectivas que pueden ser usadas en intervenciones nutricionales, pero es importante que sean desarrolladas bajo un marco teórico que incluya los constructos importantes para lograr cambios en el comportamiento. Algunos componentes importantes que estas aplicaciones móviles deben tener para ser efectivas son proveer instrucciones, motivar al usuario a continuar, proveer premios, dar retroalimentación según el rendimiento, promover la auto-regulación, incluir el establecimiento de metas, aumentar conocimientos en nutrición y ofrecer apoyo social. También es importante mantener el usuario motivado a continuar usándolas para obtener cambios positivos en el comportamiento. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las aplicaciones móviles en nutrición disponibles no son basadas en estas teorías para promover el cambio en el comportamiento. A pesar de la alta disponibilidad de aplicaciones móviles en nutrición, la mayoría no ha sido evaluada a través de estudios de eficacia. Esta falta de evaluación puede impedir la efectividad de estas aplicaciones para mejorar los patrones de alimentación. Por lo tanto, se necesitan mas estudios que evalúen las aplicaciones móviles disponibles en el mercado.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract: There are several mobile applications available related to nutrition, such as applications that count calories, that offer a food score, that generate a diet plan, and/or generate a healthy grocery list. Some applications may have several of these functions in the same application. These could be effective tools to use in nutritional interventions, but it is important that they are developed based on behavioral change theories. Some of the main components that effective mobile applications should include are to provide instructions, motive the user to continue using the application, provide rewards for using them, provide feedback based on the outcomes, increase nutrition knowledge, and offer social support. It is also important to motivate the user to continue using these applications to lead to positive behavioral change. However, most of the nutrition mobile applications available are not theory-based. Also, despite of the large number of available nutrition mobile applications, only a few have been evaluated for their efficacy. This lack of evaluation may hinder their use as effective tools for improving dietary patterns. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the available mobile applications related to nutrition.

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          Most cited references36

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          Health App Use Among US Mobile Phone Owners: A National Survey

          Background Mobile phone health apps may now seem to be ubiquitous, yet much remains unknown with regard to their usage. Information is limited with regard to important metrics, including the percentage of the population that uses health apps, reasons for adoption/nonadoption, and reasons for noncontinuance of use. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine health app use among mobile phone owners in the United States. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1604 mobile phone users throughout the United States. The 36-item survey assessed sociodemographic characteristics, history of and reasons for health app use/nonuse, perceived effectiveness of health apps, reasons for stopping use, and general health status. Results A little over half (934/1604, 58.23%) of mobile phone users had downloaded a health-related mobile app. Fitness and nutrition were the most common categories of health apps used, with most respondents using them at least daily. Common reasons for not having downloaded apps were lack of interest, cost, and concern about apps collecting their data. Individuals more likely to use health apps tended to be younger, have higher incomes, be more educated, be Latino/Hispanic, and have a body mass index (BMI) in the obese range (all P<.05). Cost was a significant concern among respondents, with a large proportion indicating that they would not pay anything for a health app. Interestingly, among those who had downloaded health apps, trust in their accuracy and data safety was quite high, and most felt that the apps had improved their health. About half of the respondents (427/934, 45.7%) had stopped using some health apps, primarily due to high data entry burden, loss of interest, and hidden costs. Conclusions These findings suggest that while many individuals use health apps, a substantial proportion of the population does not, and that even among those who use health apps, many stop using them. These data suggest that app developers need to better address consumer concerns, such as cost and high data entry burden, and that clinical trials are necessary to test the efficacy of health apps to broaden their appeal and adoption.
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            Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Weight Loss and Increase Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

            Background To our knowledge, no meta-analysis to date has assessed the efficacy of mobile phone apps to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to compare the efficacy of mobile phone apps compared with other approaches to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies identified by a search of PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus from their inception through to August 2015. Two members of the study team (EG-F, GF-M) independently screened studies for inclusion criteria and extracted data. We included all controlled studies that assessed a mobile phone app intervention with weight-related health measures (ie, body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) or physical activity outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across studies using random-effects models. Results We included 12 articles in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, use of a mobile phone app was associated with significant changes in body weight (kg) and body mass index (kg/m2) of -1.04 kg (95% CI -1.75 to -0.34; I2 = 41%) and -0.43 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.74 to -0.13; I2 = 50%), respectively. Moreover, a nonsignificant difference in physical activity was observed between the two groups (standardized mean difference 0.40, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.87; I2 = 93%). These findings were remarkably robust in the sensitivity analysis. No publication bias was shown. Conclusions Evidence from this study shows that mobile phone app-based interventions may be useful tools for weight loss.
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              Apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents: a review of quality, features and behaviour change techniques

              Background The number of commercial apps to improve health behaviours in children is growing rapidly. While this provides opportunities for promoting health, the content and quality of apps targeting children and adolescents is largely unexplored. This review systematically evaluated the content and quality of apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents, and examined relationships of app quality ratings with number of app features and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used. Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted in iTunes and Google Play stores between May–November 2016. Apps were included if they targeted children or adolescents, focused on improving diet, physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour, had a user rating of at least 4+ based on at least 20 ratings, and were available in English. App inclusion, downloading and user-testing for quality assessment and content analysis were conducted independently by two reviewers. Spearman correlations were used to examine relationships between app quality, and number of technical app features and BCTs included. Results Twenty-five apps were included targeting diet (n = 12), physical activity (n = 18) and sedentary behaviour (n = 7). On a 5-point Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), overall app quality was moderate (total MARS score: 3.6). Functionality was the highest scoring domain (mean: 4.1, SD: 0.6), followed by aesthetics (mean: 3.8, SD: 0.8), and lower scoring for engagement (mean: 3.6, SD: 0.7) and information quality (mean: 2.8, SD: 0.8). On average, 6 BCTs were identified per app (range: 1–14); the most frequently used BCTs were providing ‘instructions’ (n = 19), ‘general encouragement’ (n = 18), ‘contingent rewards’ (n = 17), and ‘feedback on performance’ (n = 13). App quality ratings correlated positively with numbers of technical app features (rho = 0.42, p < 0.05) and BCTs included (rho = 0.54, p < 0.01). Conclusions Popular commercial apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents had moderate quality overall, scored higher in terms of functionality. Most apps incorporated some BCTs and higher quality apps included more app features and BCTs. Future app development should identify factors that promote users’ app engagement, be tailored to specific population groups, and be informed by health behaviour theories. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0538-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                avn
                Anales Venezolanos de Nutrición
                An Venez Nutr
                Fundación Bengoa (Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela )
                0798-0752
                December 2020
                : 33
                : 2
                : 177-182
                Affiliations
                [1] orgnameUniversidad Internacional de la Florida orgdiv1Escuela Robert Stempel de Salud Pública orgdiv2Departamento de Dietética y Nutrición USA
                Article
                S0798-07522020000200177 S0798-0752(20)03300200177
                e7abb8b0-7f0b-4df9-9713-666eca3e464a

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 20 December 2020
                : 18 January 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 6
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Artículo de Revisíon

                nutrición,Aplicaciones móviles,prevención,health promotion,prevention,interventions,nutrition,intervenciones,promoción de la salud,Mobile applications

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