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      Investigations into the Effect of Glyoxylate Decarboxylation and Transamination on Oxalate Formation in the Rat

      a , a , b

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      Hyperoxaluria, Glyoxylate, Decarboxylation, Transamination, Cysteine

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          Abstract

          The decarboxylation and transamination reactions of glyoxylate, which divert this precursor from oxalate formation, have been investigated. Decarboxylation of glyoxylate is synergistic with 2-oxoglutarate and catalysed by 2-oxoglutarate :glyoxylate carboligase which co-chromatographs with the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. The activity is located in the mitochondrial fraction and is probably due to the E<sub>1</sub> subunit of the complex. A greater amount of decarboxylation occurs from 2-oxoglutarate than from glyoxylate but the presence of 2-oxoglutarate does not affect oxalate formation from glyoxylate. There is no oxalate formation from 2-oxoglutarate. Studies with rat liver homogenates showed that a number of amino acids can participate in glyoxylate transamination. However, using isolated rat hepatocytes, these reactions did not have a significant effect on oxalate formation from glyoxylate with the exception of cysteine which caused an 80% reduction in oxalate formation. Investigation of this inhibition indicated that it was most likely due to the formation of a cysteine-glyoxylate adduct which makes glyoxylate unavailable for oxidation to oxalate. This cysteine inhibition of oxalate formation was also demonstrated in normal rats and rats made hyperoxaluric by injecting them with either glyoxylate or glycolate. The results indicate that sulphydryl compounds, which can have a therapeutic role as oxalate-lowering agents, may be able to be developed.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEF
          Nephron
          10.1159/issn.1660-8151
          Nephron
          S. Karger AG
          1660-8151
          2235-3186
          1991
          1991
          11 December 2008
          : 57
          : 4
          : 460-469
          Affiliations
          aDivision of Clinical Chemistry, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide.; bDepartment of Biochemistry, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
          Article
          186350 Nephron 1991;57:460–469
          10.1159/000186350
          2046830
          © 1991 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 10
          Categories
          Original Paper

          Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

          Hyperoxaluria, Glyoxylate, Decarboxylation, Transamination, Cysteine

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