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      Pre-Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Physicochemical Studies of CLBQ14, a Novel Methionine Aminopeptidase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases

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          CLBQ14, a derivative of 8-hydroxyquinoline, exerts its chemotherapeutic effect by inhibiting methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP), the enzyme responsible for the post-translational modification of several proteins and polypeptides. MetAP is a novel target for infectious diseases. CLBQ14 is selective and highly potent against replicating and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis making it an appealing lead for further development.


          The physicochemical properties (solubility, pH stability and lipophilicity), in vitro plasma stability and metabolism, pre-clinical pharmacokinetics, plasma protein binding and tissue distribution of CLBQ14 in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were characterized.


          At room temperature, CLBQ14 is practically insoluble in water (<0.07 mg/mL) but freely soluble in dimethyl acetamide (>80 mg/mL); it has a log P value of 3.03 ± 0.04. CLBQ14 exhibits an inverse Z-shaped pH decomposition profile; it is stable at acidic pH but is degraded at a faster rate at basic pH. It is highly bound to plasma proteins (>91%), does not partition to red blood cells (B/P ratio: 0.83 ± 0.03), and is stable in mouse, rat, monkey and human plasma. CLBQ14 exhibited a bi-exponential pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration in rats, bioavailability of 39.4 and 90.0%, respectively from oral and subcutaneous route. We observed a good correlation between predicted and observed rat clearance, 1.90 ± 0.17 L/kg/h and 1.67 ± 0.08 L/kg/h, respectively. Human hepatic clearance predicted from microsomal stability data and from the single species scaling were 0.80 L/hr/kg and 0.69 L/h/kg, respectively. CLBQ14 is extensively distributed in rats; following a 5 mg/kg intravenous administration, lowest and highest concentrations of 15.6 ± 4.20 ng/g of heart and 405.9 ± 77.11 ng/g of kidneys, respectively, were observed. In vitro CYP reaction phenotyping demonstrates that CLBQ14 is metabolized primarily by CYP 1A2.


          CLBQ14 possess appealing qualities of a drug candidate. The studies reported herein are imperative to the development of CLBQ14 as a new chemical entity for infectious diseases.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Physiological parameters in laboratory animals and humans.

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            Species differences between mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human CYP-mediated drug metabolism, inhibition and induction.

            Animal models are commonly used in the preclinical development of new drugs to predict the metabolic behaviour of new compounds in humans. It is, however, important to realise that humans differ from animals with regards to isoform composition, expression and catalytic activities of drug-metabolising enzymes. In this review the authors describe similarities and differences in this respect among the different species, including man. This may be helpful for drug researchers to choose the most relevant animal species in which the metabolism of a compound can be studied for extrapolating the results to humans. The authors focus on CYPs, which are the main enzymes involved in numerous oxidative reactions and often play a critical role in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics. In addition, induction and inhibition of CYPs are compared among species. The authors conclude that CYP2E1 shows no large differences between species, and extrapolation between species appears to hold quite well. In contrast, the species-specific isoforms of CYP1A, -2C, -2D and -3A show appreciable interspecies differences in terms of catalytic activity and some caution should be applied when extrapolating metabolism data from animal models to humans.
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              Protein N-terminal methionine excision.

              N-terminal methionine excision (NME) is the major proteolytic pathway responsible for the diversity of N-terminal amino acids in proteins. Dedicated NME components have been identified in all organisms, in all compartments in which protein synthesis occurs: cytoplasm, plastids and mitochondria. Recent studies have revealed that NME is regulated at various levels and plays an important role in controlling protein turnover. NME is essential in Eubacteria and lower eukaryotes and is the target of many natural and synthetic inhibitors. Such inhibitors have considerable potential for use in the treatment of various human diseases, from cancer to bacterial and parasitic infections.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                30 March 2020
                : 14
                : 1263-1277
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical and Environmental Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University , Houston, TX, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Huan Xie Department of Pharmaceutical and Environmental Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University , 3100 Cleburne Street, Houston, TX77004, USA Email huan.xie@tsu.edu
                © 2020 Ekpenyong et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 5, References: 44, Pages: 15
                This study was funded partially by the National Institute of Health SC3 (grant number 1SC3GM102018), by the National Institute of Health’s Research Centers in Minority Institutes Program (RCMI, grant number G12MD007605) and by the Cancer Prevention & Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT, grant number RP180748).
                Original Research


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