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      TFF Peptides Play a Role in the Immune Response Following Oral Infection of Mice with Toxoplasma Gondii

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          The peptide trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) is a major constituent of the intestinal mucus, playing an important role in the repair of epithelial surfaces. To further understand the role of TFF3 in the protection of intestinal epithelium, we tested the influence of TFF3 in a murine Toxoplasma gondii-induced ileitis model. Surprisingly, TFF3 KO mice showed a reduced immune response in the ileum when compared to wild-type animals. Interleukin-12 and interferon-γ expression levels as well as the number of CD4 + lymphocytes were reduced in the infected TFF3 KO mice. These effects were in line with the trend of elevated parasite levels in the ileum. Moreover, TFF1 expression was upregulated in the spleen of infected mice. These initial results indicate that TFF3 is involved in the immune pathology of T. gondii infection-induced intestinal inflammation. Thus far, the mechanisms of how TFF3 influences the immune response are not fully understood. Further studies should identify if TFF3 affects mucus sensing of dendritic cells and how TFF3 is involved in regulating the immune response as an intrinsic secretory peptide of immune cells.

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          Most cited references 73

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          NLRP6 inflammasome orchestrates the colonic host-microbial interface by regulating goblet cell mucus secretion.

          Mucus production by goblet cells of the large intestine serves as a crucial antimicrobial protective mechanism at the interface between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of the mammalian intestinal ecosystem. However, the regulatory pathways involved in goblet cell-induced mucus secretion remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the NLRP6 inflammasome, a recently described regulator of colonic microbiota composition and biogeographical distribution, is a critical orchestrator of goblet cell mucin granule exocytosis. NLRP6 deficiency leads to defective autophagy in goblet cells and abrogated mucus secretion into the large intestinal lumen. Consequently, NLRP6 inflammasome-deficient mice are unable to clear enteric pathogens from the mucosal surface, rendering them highly susceptible to persistent infection. This study identifies an innate immune regulatory pathway governing goblet cell mucus secretion, linking nonhematopoietic inflammasome signaling to autophagy and highlighting the goblet cell as a critical innate immune player in the control of intestinal host-microbial mutualism. PAPERCLIP: Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Mucus enhances gut homeostasis and oral tolerance by delivering immunoregulatory signals.

            A dense mucus layer in the large intestine prevents inflammation by shielding the underlying epithelium from luminal bacteria and food antigens. This mucus barrier is organized around the hyperglycosylated mucin MUC2. Here we show that the small intestine has a porous mucus layer, which permitted the uptake of MUC2 by antigen-sampling dendritic cells (DCs). Glycans associated with MUC2 imprinted DCs with anti-inflammatory properties by assembling a galectin-3-Dectin-1-FcγRIIB receptor complex that activated β-catenin. This transcription factor interfered with DC expression of inflammatory but not tolerogenic cytokines by inhibiting gene transcription through nuclear factor κB. MUC2 induced additional conditioning signals in intestinal epithelial cells. Thus, mucus does not merely form a nonspecific physical barrier, but also constrains the immunogenicity of gut antigens by delivering tolerogenic signals.
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              Gr1(+) inflammatory monocytes are required for mucosal resistance to the pathogen Toxoplasma gondii.

              The enteric pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is controlled by a vigorous innate T helper 1 (Th1) cell response in the murine model. We demonstrated that after oral infection, the parasite rapidly recruited inflammatory monocytes [Gr1(+) (Ly6C(+), Ly6G(-)) F4/80(+)CD11b(+)CD11c(-)], which established a vital defensive perimeter within the villi of the ileum in the small intestine. Mice deficient of the chemokine receptor CCR2 or the ligand CCL2 failed to recruit Gr1(+) inflammatory monocytes, whereas dendritic cells and resident tissue macrophages remained unaltered. The selective lack of Gr1(+) inflammatory monocytes resulted in an inability of mice to control replication of the parasite, high influx of neutrophils, extensive intestinal necrosis, and rapid death. Adoptive transfer of sorted Gr1(+) inflammatory monocytes demonstrated their ability to home to the ileum in infected animals and protect Ccr2(-/-) mice, which were otherwise highly susceptible to oral toxoplasmosis. Collectively, these findings illustrate the critical importance of inflammatory monocytes as a first line of defense in controlling intestinal pathogens.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                18 September 2015
                September 2015
                : 5
                : 3
                : 221-231
                [1 ]Institute of Molecular Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg , Germany
                [2 ]Institute of Pathology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg , Germany
                [3 ]Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg , Germany
                Author notes
                * Institute of Molecular Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany; werner.hoffmann@

                &These authors contributed equally.

                #These authors contributed equally.

                © 2015, The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 68, Pages: 11
                Original Article


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