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      Sleeping with the enemy: unravelling the symbiotic relationships between the scale worm Neopolynoe chondrocladiae (Annelida: Polynoidae) and its carnivorous sponge hosts

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          Abstract

          The North Atlantic deep-water polynoid worm Neopolynoe chondrocladiae is involved in an exceptional symbiotic relationship with two hosts: the carnivorous sponges Chondrocladia robertballardi and Chondrocladia virgata. While this is an obligate symbiotic relationship, its real nature is unclear. We used a multidisciplinary approach to narrow down the type of symbiotic relationship between symbiont and hosts. Molecular connectivity analyses using COI and 16S suggest that N. chondrocladiae has high potential for dispersal, connecting sites hundreds of kilometres apart, likely aided by oceanographic currents. Microbial analyses on different anatomical parts of five Chondrocladia species suggest that the presence of the worm in C. robertballardi does not affect the microbiome of the sponge. MicroCT analysis on N. chondrocladiae show that it has dorsally oriented parapodia, which might prevent the worm from getting trapped in the sponge. A faecal pellet recovered from the worm suggests that the polynoid feeds on the crustacean prey captured by the sponge, something corroborated by our stable isotope analysis. Light and confocal microscopy images suggest that N. chondrocladiae elytra produce bioluminescence. We propose that the worm might use bioluminescence as a lure for prey (increasing the food available for both the sponge and the polynoid) and thus fuelling a mutualistic relationship.

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          Most cited references78

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          Is Open Access

          MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

          We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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            edgeR: a Bioconductor package for differential expression analysis of digital gene expression data

            Summary: It is expected that emerging digital gene expression (DGE) technologies will overtake microarray technologies in the near future for many functional genomics applications. One of the fundamental data analysis tasks, especially for gene expression studies, involves determining whether there is evidence that counts for a transcript or exon are significantly different across experimental conditions. edgeR is a Bioconductor software package for examining differential expression of replicated count data. An overdispersed Poisson model is used to account for both biological and technical variability. Empirical Bayes methods are used to moderate the degree of overdispersion across transcripts, improving the reliability of inference. The methodology can be used even with the most minimal levels of replication, provided at least one phenotype or experimental condition is replicated. The software may have other applications beyond sequencing data, such as proteome peptide count data. Availability: The package is freely available under the LGPL licence from the Bioconductor web site (http://bioconductor.org). Contact: mrobinson@wehi.edu.au
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              Basic local alignment search tool.

              A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
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                Journal
                Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0024-4082
                1096-3642
                September 01 2021
                August 24 2021
                December 30 2020
                September 01 2021
                August 24 2021
                December 30 2020
                : 193
                : 1
                : 295-318
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Apdo. 20, Campus Universitario, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Spain
                [2 ]Life Sciences Department, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, UK
                [3 ]Departamento de Biología (Zoología), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
                [4 ]Division of Biosciences, University College London, Gower Street, London, UK
                [5 ]School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Queens Road, Bristol, UK
                [6 ]Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Gijón, C/ Príncipe de Asturias 70 bis, Gijón, Asturias, Spain
                [7 ]Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Santander, Promontorio San Martín s/n, Apdo. 240, Santander, Spain
                [8 ]NORCE Environment, NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Nygårdsgaten 112 NO-5838 Bergen, Norway
                [9 ]Instituto de Ciencias del Mar CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37–49, Barcelona, Spain
                Article
                10.1093/zoolinnean/zlaa146
                e7cb8ff1-53a8-4209-a7b9-e4a103aeb465
                © 2020

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model

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