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      Comparison of Long-Term Perifused Pars intermedia of Anolis carolinensis, Rana pipiens and Hyla chrysoscelis: Their Responses to Dopamine

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          Abstract

          Pituitary pars nervosa-pars intermedia of Anolis carolinensis, Rana pipiens and Hyla crysoscelis were perifused with synthetic medium 199 for up to 35 h. The pre- and post-perifused tissues were examined by electron microscopy. No neuronal endings were found in Anolis tissue, but both Rana and Hyla had occasional synaptic end bulbs, which remained visible in the post-perifused tissue, although the synaptic vesicles appeared to cluster in the center of the end bulbs. Exposure to dopamine HCl from 10<sup>–8</sup> to10<sup>–5</sup> M had little effect on Anolis pituitary but inhibited Rana and Hyla pituitaries from releasing skin-darkening substances. The skin-darkening substances, presumably derivatives of the proopiomelanocortin molecule, were assayed on Anolis skin. No dose-dependent responses to dopamine were seen at the concentrations used. We saw the possibility of a short-loop feedback.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Hair Color, Molt, and Testis Size in Male, Short-Tailed Weasels Treated with Melatonin

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            Feedback inhibition of opioid peptide release in the hypothalamus of the rat

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              Molecular evolution of the opioid/orphanin gene family.

              Gene duplication is a recurring theme in the evolution of vertebrate polypeptide hormones and neuropeptides. These duplication events can lead to the formation of gene families in which divergence of function is the usual outcome. In the case of the opioid/orphanin family of genes, duplication events have proceeded along two paths: (a) an apparent duplication of function as seen in the analgesic activity of Proenkephalin and Prodynorphin end-products; and (b) divergence of function as seen in the nociceptic activity of Proorphanin end-products or the melanocortin (color change and chronic stress regulation) activity of Proopiomelanocortin end-products. Although genes coding for Proopiomelanocortin, Proenkephalin, Prodynorphin, and Proorphanin have been extensively studied in mammals, the distribution and radiation of these genes in nonmammalian vertebrates is less well understood. This review will present the hypothesis that the radiation of the opioid/orphanin gene family is the result of the duplication and divergence of the Proenkephalin gene during the radiation of the chordates. To evaluate the Proenkephalin gene duplication hypothesis, a 3'RACE procedure was used to screen for the presence of Prodynorphin-related, Proenkephalin-related, and Proorphanin-related cDNAs expressed in the brains of nonmammalian vertebrates. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2004
                May 2005
                25 May 2005
                : 80
                : 6
                : 343-354
                Affiliations
                aSchool of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr., and bDepartment of Genetics, Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebr., USA
                Article
                83703 Neuroendocrinology 2004;80:343–354
                10.1159/000083703
                15687732
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 15, References: 35, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Paper

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