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      Individual and Combined Effects of Fumonisin B 1, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Hepatic and Renal Membrane Lipid Integrity of Rats

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          Abstract

          (1) Background and (2) Methods: A 14-day in vivo, multitoxic (pure mycotoxins) rat experiment was conducted with zearalenone (ZEA; 15 μg/animal/day), deoxynivalenol (DON; 30 μg/animal/day) and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1; 150 μg/animal/day), as individual mycotoxins, binary (FD, FZ and DZ) and ternary combinations (FDZ), via gavage in 1 mL water boluses. (3) Results: Body weight was unaffected, while liver (ZEA↑ vs. DON) and kidney weight (ZEA↑ vs. FDZ) increased. Hepatocellular membrane lipid fatty acids (FAs) referred to ceramide synthesis disturbance (C20:0, C22:0), and decreased unsaturation (C22:5 n3 and unsat. index), mainly induced by DON and to a lesser extent by ZEA. The DON-FB 1 interaction was additive on C20:0 in liver lipids. In renal phospholipids, ZEA had the strongest effect on the FA profile, affecting the saturated (C18:0) and many n6 FAs; ZEA was in an antagonistic relationship with FB 1 (C18:0) or DON (C18:2 n6, C20:1 n9). Hepatic oxidative stress was the most expressed in FD (reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase), while the nephrotoxic effect was further supported by lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) in the DON treatment. (4) Conclusions: In vivo study results refer to multiple mycotoxin interactions on membrane FAs, antioxidants and lipid peroxidation compounds, needing further testing.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Estimation of product of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde) in biochemical systems.

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            A simple procedure for rapid transmethylation of glycerolipids and cholesteryl esters.

             W Christie (1982)
            A simple procedure suitable for rapid transmethylation of triacylglycerols, other neutral lipids (including cholesteryl esters), and glycerophospholipids is described. Lipids in diethyl ether solution (50 volumes), in the presence of methyl acetate (1 vol), are reacted with 1 M sodium methoxide in methanol (1 vol) at room temperature. Essentially complete transmethylation can occur within a few minutes with no hydrolysis. Glassware and reagent requirements are minimal and samples are ready for gas-liquid chromatography analysis with very little work-up.
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              Invited Review: TOXICOLOGY OF DEOXYNIVALENOL (VOMITOXIN)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                22 December 2017
                January 2018
                : 10
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Kaposvár University, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
                [2 ]“MTA-KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain” Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Kaposvár University, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary; fodor.judit@ 123456ke.hu (J.S.-F.); kocso.daniel@ 123456ke.hu (D.K.); kovacs.melinda@ 123456ke.hu (M.K.)
                [3 ]Research Institute for Animal Breeding, Nutrition and Meat Science, National Agricultural Research Center, 2053 Herceghalom, Hungary; febel.hedvig@ 123456atk.naik.hu
                [4 ]Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Szent István University, 2013 Gödöllő, Hungary; mezes.miklos@ 123456mkk.szie.hu (M.M.); balogh.krisztian@ 123456mkk.szie.hu (K.B.)
                [5 ]Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kaposvár University, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary; bazar@ 123456agrilab.hu (G.B.); omeralfaroug.ali@ 123456gmail.com (O.A.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: szan1125@ 123456freemail.hu ; Tel.: +36-82-505800 (ext. 6020); Fax: +36-82-502020
                Article
                toxins-10-00004
                10.3390/toxins10010004
                5793091
                29271890
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular medicine

                rat, liver, kidney, fusariotoxins, multitoxic effects, phospholipids

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