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      Recommendations for myeloid-derived suppressor cell nomenclature and characterization standards

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          Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population expanded in cancer and other chronic inflammatory conditions. Here the authors identify the challenges and propose a set of minimal reporting guidelines for mouse and human MDSC.


          Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have emerged as major regulators of immune responses in cancer and other pathological conditions. In recent years, ample evidence supports key contributions of MDSC to tumour progression through both immune-mediated mechanisms and those not directly associated with immune suppression. MDSC are the subject of intensive research with >500 papers published in 2015 alone. However, the phenotypic, morphological and functional heterogeneity of these cells generates confusion in investigation and analysis of their roles in inflammatory responses. The purpose of this communication is to suggest characterization standards in the burgeoning field of MDSC research.

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          Most cited references 79

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          Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas.

          Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. In response to IFNs, Toll-like receptor engagement, or IL-4/IL-13 signaling, macrophages undergo M1 (classical) or M2 (alternative) activation, which represent extremes of a continuum in a universe of activation states. Progress has now been made in defining the signaling pathways, transcriptional networks, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying M1-M2 or M2-like polarized activation. Functional skewing of mononuclear phagocytes occurs in vivo under physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy) and in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer). However, in selected preclinical and clinical conditions, coexistence of cells in different activation states and unique or mixed phenotypes have been observed, a reflection of dynamic changes and complex tissue-derived signals. The identification of mechanisms and molecules associated with macrophage plasticity and polarized activation provides a basis for macrophage-centered diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
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            Macrophage activation and polarization: nomenclature and experimental guidelines.

            Description of macrophage activation is currently contentious and confusing. Like the biblical Tower of Babel, macrophage activation encompasses a panoply of descriptors used in different ways. The lack of consensus on how to define macrophage activation in experiments in vitro and in vivo impedes progress in multiple ways, including the fact that many researchers still consider there to be only two types of activated macrophages, often termed M1 and M2. Here, we describe a set of standards encompassing three principles-the source of macrophages, definition of the activators, and a consensus collection of markers to describe macrophage activation-with the goal of unifying experimental standards for diverse experimental scenarios. Collectively, we propose a common framework for macrophage-activation nomenclature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours.

              Myeloid cells are the most abundant nucleated haematopoietic cells in the human body and are a collection of distinct cell populations with many diverse functions. The three groups of terminally differentiated myeloid cells - macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes - are essential for the normal function of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Mounting evidence indicates that the tumour microenvironment alters myeloid cells and can convert them into potent immunosuppressive cells. Here, we consider myeloid cells as an intricately connected, complex, single system and we focus on how tumours manipulate the myeloid system to evade the host immune response.

                Author and article information

                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group
                06 July 2016
                : 7
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, University Hospital, University of Verona , Verona 37134, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital Essen , Essen D-45122, Germany
                [3 ]Department of Oncological Sciences, Tisch Cancer Institute, Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York, New York 10029, USA
                [4 ]Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Molecular Immunology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori , Milano 20133, Italy
                [5 ]New York University School of Medicine , New York, New York 10029, USA
                [6 ]GI-Malignancy Section, Thoracic and GI Oncology Branch, NCI , Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
                [7 ]Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, Section of Oncology and Immunology, University of Padova , Padova 35128, Italy
                [8 ]Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS , Padova 35128, Italy
                [9 ]Departments of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital , Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
                [10 ]Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University , New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
                [11 ]University of Maryland Baltimore County , Baltimore, Maryland 21250, USA
                [12 ]Georgia Regents University Cancer Center , Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
                [13 ]Humanitas Clinical and Research Center , Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, Milan 20089, Italy
                [14 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale ‘Amedeo Avogadro' , via Bovio 6, Novara 20089, Italy
                [15 ]Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) , Heidelberg 69120, Germany
                [16 ]Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg , Mannheim 69120, Germany
                [17 ]Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
                [18 ]Translational Tumor Immunology, The Wistar Institute , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
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