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      Efficient Removal of Perfluorinated Chemicals from Contaminated Water Sources Using Magnetic Fluorinated Polymer Sorbents

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          Abstract

          Efficient removal of per‐ and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from contaminated waters is urgently needed to safeguard public and environmental health. In this work, novel magnetic fluorinated polymer sorbents were designed to allow efficient capture of PFAS and fast magnetic recovery of the sorbed material. The new sorbent has superior PFAS removal efficiency compared with the commercially available activated carbon and ion‐exchange resins. The removal of the ammonium salt of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (GenX) reaches >99 % within 30 s, and the estimated sorption capacity was 219 mg g −1 based on the Langmuir model. Robust and efficient regeneration of the magnetic polymer sorbent was confirmed by the repeated sorption and desorption of GenX over four cycles. The sorption of multiple PFAS in two real contaminated water matrices at an environmentally relevant concentration (1 ppb) shows >95 % removal for the majority of PFAS tested in this study.

          Abstract

          Magnetic polymer sorbents (polymer@IONPs) were prepared for rapid, selective and efficient removal of multiple per‐ and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from real contaminated waters at environmentally relevant concentrations. Fast magnetic recovery of the sorbent within 30 s was achieved. Regeneration of the sorbent for repeated use was demonstrated over four cycles. The technology is promising for large‐scale implementation of PFAS capture.

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          Most cited references61

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          THE ADSORPTION OF GASES ON PLANE SURFACES OF GLASS, MICA AND PLATINUM.

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            Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Environment: Terminology, Classification, and Origins

            The primary aim of this article is to provide an overview of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans, and recommend clear, specific, and descriptive terminology, names, and acronyms for PFASs. The overarching objective is to unify and harmonize communication on PFASs by offering terminology for use by the global scientific, regulatory, and industrial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, substances related to the long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, and substances intended as alternatives to the use of the long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids or their precursors. First, we define PFASs, classify them into various families, and recommend a pragmatic set of common names and acronyms for both the families and their individual members. Terminology related to fluorinated polymers is an important aspect of our classification. Second, we provide a brief description of the 2 main production processes, electrochemical fluorination and telomerization, used for introducing perfluoroalkyl moieties into organic compounds, and we specify the types of byproducts (isomers and homologues) likely to arise in these processes. Third, we show how the principal families of PFASs are interrelated as industrial, environmental, or metabolic precursors or transformation products of one another. We pay particular attention to those PFASs that have the potential to be converted, by abiotic or biotic environmental processes or by human metabolism, into long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic or sulfonic acids, which are currently the focus of regulatory action. The Supplemental Data lists 42 families and subfamilies of PFASs and 268 selected individual compounds, providing recommended names and acronyms, and structural formulas, as well as Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2011;7:513–541. © 2011 SETAC
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              Sources, fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylates.

              This review describes the sources, fate, and transport of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the environment, with a specific focus on perfluorooctanoate (PFO). The global historical industry-wide emissions of total PFCAs from direct (manufacture, use, consumer products) and indirect (PFCA impurities and/or precursors) sources were estimated to be 3200-7300 tonnes. It was estimated that the majority (approximately 80%) of PFCAs have been released to the environment from fluoropolymer manufacture and use. Although indirect sources were estimated to be much less importantthan direct sources, there were larger uncertainties associated with the calculations for indirect sources. The physical-chemical properties of PFO (negligible vapor pressure, high solubility in water, and moderate sorption to solids) suggested that PFO would accumulate in surface waters. Estimated mass inventories of PFO in various environmental compartments confirmed that surface waters, especially oceans, contain the majority of PFO. The only environmental sinks for PFO were identified to be sediment burial and transport to the deep oceans, implying a long environmental residence time. Transport pathways for PFCAs in the environment were reviewed, and it was concluded that, in addition to atmospheric transport/degradation of precursors, atmospheric and ocean water transport of the PFCAs themselves could significantly contribute to their long-range transport. It was estimated that 2-12 tonnes/ year of PFO are transported to the Artic by oceanic transport, which is greater than the amount estimated to result from atmospheric transport/degradation of precursors.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                a.whittaker@uq.edu.au
                c.zhang3@uq.edu.au
                Journal
                Angew Chem Int Ed Engl
                Angew Chem Int Ed Engl
                10.1002/(ISSN)1521-3773
                ANIE
                Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English)
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1433-7851
                1521-3773
                10 November 2022
                05 December 2022
                : 61
                : 49 ( doiID: 10.1002/anie.v61.49 )
                : e202213071
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology The University of Queensland Corner College and Cooper Rds (Bldg 75) Brisbane Queensland 4072 Australia
                [ 2 ] Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences The University of Queensland, Level 4 20 Cornwall Street Woolloongabba Queensland 4102 Australia
                [ 3 ] The Chemours Company, Chemours Discovery Hub 201 Discovery Boulevard Newark DE 19713 USA
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1948-8355
                Article
                ANIE202213071
                10.1002/anie.202213071
                10946870
                36225164
                e7e8616e-3d10-4bdd-8fa4-7cea9a15c050
                © 2022 The Authors. Angewandte Chemie International Edition published by Wiley-VCH GmbH

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                History
                : 05 September 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 2, References: 77, Pages: 9, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: Australian Research Council , doi 10.13039/501100000923;
                Award ID: DP210101496
                Funded by: National Health and Medical Research Council , doi 10.13039/501100000925;
                Award ID: APP1157440
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Nanomaterials | Very Important Paper
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                December 5, 2022
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.3.9 mode:remove_FC converted:18.03.2024

                Chemistry
                contaminated water remediation,fluorinated polymer sorbent,magnetic separation,pfas removal

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