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      Revision of the Exechia parva group (Diptera: Mycetophilidae)

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      Biodiversity Data Journal

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Exechia is a diverse genus of small fungus gnats, widespread in the Holarctic Region, while the fauna is largely unknown elsewhere, such as in the Afrotropical and Oriental Region. Members of Exechia can be arranged into several species groups, based on homologies in the male and female terminalia. The Exechia parva group is delimited, based on male terminalia possessing a pair of gonocoxal lobes on the apicoventral gonocoxal margin. Eight previously-described species can be placed in this group, of which six are from the Holarctic Region, while one is recorded each from the Oriental and the Afrotropical Regions.The Exechia parva group was reviewed and found to include 33 species, of which 24 were described as new to science and six were re-described. Identification keys to 32 species for males and nine species for females are provided together with illustrations and photos of male and female terminalia. Species delimitations were based on morphological examination of 94 male and female specimens, as well as DNA barcodes obtained from 124 specimens. Molecular and morphological species delimitations were mostly congruent, except in two cases where two species were delimited within a single Barcode Index Number (BIN). We found that each species is only known from a single zoogeographical region and that several species complexes are largely congruent with zoogeographical divisions, indicating that intercontinental barriers may have a strong impact on the species diversity of the group.

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          Posterior Summarization in Bayesian Phylogenetics Using Tracer 1.7

          Abstract Bayesian inference of phylogeny using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) plays a central role in understanding evolutionary history from molecular sequence data. Visualizing and analyzing the MCMC-generated samples from the posterior distribution is a key step in any non-trivial Bayesian inference. We present the software package Tracer (version 1.7) for visualizing and analyzing the MCMC trace files generated through Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Tracer provides kernel density estimation, multivariate visualization, demographic trajectory reconstruction, conditional posterior distribution summary, and more. Tracer is open-source and available at http://beast.community/tracer.
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            ape 5.0: an environment for modern phylogenetics and evolutionary analyses in R

            After more than fifteen years of existence, the R package ape has continuously grown its contents, and has been used by a growing community of users. The release of version 5.0 has marked a leap towards a modern software for evolutionary analyses. Efforts have been put to improve efficiency, flexibility, support for 'big data' (R's long vectors), ease of use and quality check before a new release. These changes will hopefully make ape a useful software for the study of biodiversity and evolution in a context of increasing data quantity.
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              ggtree : an r package for visualization and annotation of phylogenetic trees with their covariates and other associated data

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                BDJ
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2828
                1314-2836
                September 24 2021
                September 24 2021
                : 9
                Article
                10.3897/BDJ.9.e67134
                © 2021

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