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      Chinese adaptation of the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test and prevalence estimate of Internet gaming disorder among adolescents in Taiwan


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          Background and aims

          Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is an increasingly important topic and has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) research criteria. This study aims to validate the Chinese version of the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10), a self-reported questionnaire based on DSM-5 IGD criteria, and to estimate the prevalence of IGD in adolescents.


          The IGDT-10 was translated to Chinese as a 10-item questionnaire rated on a 3-point Likert scale to evaluate the symptoms of IGD. Overall, 8,110 students from grade four to senior high who played Internet games were administered the questionnaire. In addition, 76 senior high-school students were interviewed using DSM-5 criteria to determine the optimal cut-off point that ensures adequate sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy. The cut-off point was determined using the Youden’s index and optimal diagnostic accuracy.


          The Chinese version of the IGDT-10 showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .85) and adequate diagnostic efficiency (area under the curve = 0.810). Through interviews, the optimal cut-off point was determined to be five out of the nine criteria (Youden’s index: 42.1%, diagnostic accuracy: 86.8%, sensitivity: 43.8%, and specificity: 98.3%). In this study, the prevalence of IGD among adolescent gamers was 3.1%.


          Findings evidence the validity and diagnostic accuracy of the IGDT-10 in the assessment of IGD.

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          Most cited references27

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          Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction.

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            An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach.

            For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM-5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition. We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM-5. We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted. Using results from this cross-cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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              Cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies of Internet gaming disorder: A systematic review of the literature.

              The diagnostic criteria of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have been included in section III of DSM-5. This study aims to systematically review both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies of IGD.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                28 September 2018
                September 2018
                : 7
                : 3
                : 719-726
                [ 1 ]Department of Psychiatry, MacKay Memorial Hospital , Taipei, Taiwan
                [ 2 ]Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University , Taipei, Taiwan
                [ 3 ]Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes , Miaoli, Taiwan
                [ 4 ]Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital , Taipei, Taiwan
                [ 5 ]Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University , Taipei, Taiwan
                [ 6 ]Institute of Health Behaviors and Community Sciences, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University , Taipei, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Yu-Hsuan Lin, MD, PhD; Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan; Phone: +886 37 246166 ext. 36383; Fax: +886 37 586261; E-mail: yuhsuanlin@ 123456nhri.org.tw
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 28 December 2017
                : 06 April 2018
                : 28 May 2018
                : 19 August 2018
                : 20 August 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Funding sources: This study was supported by the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; grant number: 106-N3705). In addition, this study was supported by a grant from National Health Research Institutes of Taiwan (06A1-PHPP30-014).
                FULL-LENGTH REPORT

                Evolutionary Biology,Medicine,Psychology,Educational research & Statistics,Social & Behavioral Sciences
                Internet gaming disorder,gaming addiction,Internet addiction


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