Osteosarcoma, one of the common malignant tumors in the skeletal system, originates in mesenchymal tissue, and the most susceptible area of occurrence is the metaphysis with its abundant blood supply. Tumors are characterized by highly malignant spindle stromal cells that can produce bone-like tissue. Most of the osteosarcoma are primary, and a few are secondary. Osteosarcoma occurs primarily in children and adolescents undergoing vigorous bone growth and development. Most cases involve rapid tumor development and early blood metastasis. In recent years, research has grown in the areas of molecular biology, imaging medicine, biological materials, applied anatomy, surgical techniques, biomechanics, and comprehensive treatment of tumors. With developments in molecular biology and tissue bioengineering, treatment methods have also made great progress, especially in comprehensive limb salvage treatment, which significantly enhances the quality of life after surgery and improves the 5-year survival rate of patients with malignant tumors. This article provides a review of limb salvage, immunotherapy, gene therapy, and targeted therapy from traditional amputation to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, providing a reference for current clinical treatments for osteosarcoma.