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      On the absolute calibration of bench-top small-angle X-ray scattering instruments: a comparison of different standard methods

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          Abstract

          Absolute calibration relates the measured (arbitrary) intensity to the differential scattering cross section of the sample, which contains all of the quantitative information specific to the material. The importance of absolute calibration in small-angle scattering experiments has long been recognized. This work details the absolute calibration procedure of a small-angle X-ray scattering instrument from Bruker AXS. The absolute calibration presented here was achieved by using a number of different types of primary and secondary standards. The samples were: a glassy carbon specimen, which had been independently calibrated from neutron radiation; a range of pure liquids, which can be used as primary standards as their differential scattering cross section is directly related to their isothermal compressibility; and a suspension of monodisperse silica particles for which the differential scattering cross section is obtained from Porod's law. Good agreement was obtained between the different standard samples, provided that care was taken to obtain significant signal averaging and all sources of background scattering were accounted for. The specimen best suited for routine calibration was the glassy carbon sample, due to its relatively intense scattering and stability over time; however, initial calibration from a primary source is necessary. Pure liquids can be used as primary calibration standards, but the measurements take significantly longer and are, therefore, less suited for frequent use.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          JACGAR
          Journal of Applied Crystallography
          J Appl Crystallogr
          International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
          0021-8898
          February 2006
          January 2006
          : 39
          : 1
          : 32-38
          Article
          10.1107/S0021889805033091
          © 2006

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