Cancers have always been an intractable problem because of recurrence and drug resistance. In the past few decades, nanoparticles have been explored intensely to diagnose, prevent and treat malignancy due to their good penetrability and better targeting. However, most nanocarriers have poor biodegradation and can be discharged out of the body quickly or cleared by immune cells while failing to obtain effective drug concentration at the specific sites. The emergence of biological membrane encapsulation technology relieves the fast clearance of antitumor drugs and reduces toxicity in vivo. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of several blood cell membrane-coated nanoparticles and further introduce exosome-carried drugs to evidence the promising prospect of biomimetic nanoparticle drug delivery systems.