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      A new model of congestive heart failure in rats

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          Abstract

          Current rodent models of ischemia/infarct or pressure-volume overload are not fully representative of human heart failure. We developed a new model of congestive heart failure (CHF) with both ischemic and stress injuries combined with fibrosis in the remote myocardium. Sprague-Dawley male rats were used. Ascending aortic banding (Ab) was performed to induce hypertrophy. Two months post-Ab, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury was induced by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) artery for 30 min. Permanent LAD ligation served as positive controls. A debanding (DeAb) procedure was performed after Ab or Ab + I/R to restore left ventricular (LV) loading properties. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamic analysis. Myocardial infarction (MI) size and myocardial fibrosis were assessed. LV hypertrophy was observed 4 mo post-Ab; however, systolic function was preserved. LV hypertrophy regressed within 1 mo after DeAb. I/R for 2 mo induced a small to moderate MI with mild impairment of LV function. Permanent LAD ligation for 2 mo induced large MI and significant cardiac dysfunction. Ab for 2 mo followed by I/R for 2 mo (Ab + I/R) resulted in moderate MI with significantly reduced ejection fraction (EF). DeAb post Ab + I/R to reduce afterload could not restore cardiac function. Perivascular fibrosis in remote myocardium after Ab + I/R + DeAb was associated with decreased cardiac function. We conclude that Ab plus I/R injury with aortic DeAb represents a novel model of CHF with increased fibrosis in remote myocardium. This model will allow the investigation of vascular and fibrotic mechanisms in CHF characterized by low EF, dilated LV, moderate infarction, near-normal aortic diameter, and reperfused coronary arteries.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology.

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            Ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Experimental observations and clinical implications.

            An acute myocardial infarction, particularly one that is large and transmural, can produce alterations in the topography of both the infarcted and noninfarcted regions of the ventricle. This remodeling can importantly affect the function of the ventricle and the prognosis for survival. In the early period, infarct expansion has been recognized by echocardiography as a lengthening of the noncontractile region. The noninfarcted region also undergoes an important lengthening that is consistent with a secondary volume-overload hypertrophy and that can be progressive. The extent of ventricular enlargement after infarction is related to the magnitude of the initial damage to the myocardium and, although an increase in cavity size tends to restore stroke volume despite a persistently depressed ejection fraction, ventricular dilation has been associated with a reduction in survival. The process of ventricular enlargement can be influenced by three interdependent factors, that is, infarct size, infarct healing, and ventricular wall stresses. A most effective way to prevent or minimize the increase in ventricular size after infarction and the consequent adverse effect on prognosis is to limit the initial insult. Acute reperfusion therapy has been consistently shown to result in a reduction in ventricular volume. The reestablishment of blood flow to the infarcted region, even beyond the time frame for myocyte salvage, has beneficial effects in attenuating ventricular enlargement. The process of scarification can be interfered with during the acute infarct period by the administration of glucocorticosteroids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, which result in thinner infarcts and greater degrees of infarct expansion. Modification of distending or deforming forces can importantly influence ventricular enlargement. Even short-term augmentations in afterload have deleterious long-term effects on ventricular topography. Conversely, judicious use of nitroglycerin seems to be associated with an attenuation of infarct expansion and long-term improvement in clinical outcome. Long-term therapy with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor can favorably alter the loading conditions on the left ventricle and reduce progressive ventricular enlargement as demonstrated in both experimental and clinical studies. With the former therapy, this attenuation of ventricular enlargement was associated with a prolongation in survival. The long-term clinical consequences of long-term angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy after myocardial infarction is currently being evaluated. Although studies directed at attenuating left ventricular remodeling after infarction are in the early stages, it does seem that this will be an important area in which future research might improve long-term outcome after infarction.
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              Measurement of cardiac function using pressure-volume conductance catheter technique in mice and rats.

              Ventricular pressure-volume relationships have become well established as the most rigorous and comprehensive ways to assess intact heart function. Thanks to advances in miniature sensor technology, this approach has been successfully translated to small rodents, allowing for detailed characterization of cardiovascular function in genetically engineered mice, testing effects of pharmacotherapies and studying disease conditions. This method is unique for providing measures of left ventricular (LV) performance that are more specific to the heart and less affected by vascular loading conditions. Here we present descriptions and movies for procedures employing this method (anesthesia, intubation and surgical techniques, calibrations). We also provide examples of hemodynamics measurements obtained from normal mice/rats, and from animals with cardiac hypertrophy/heart failure, and describe values for various useful load-dependent and load-independent indexes of LV function obtained using different types of anesthesia. The completion of the protocol takes 1-4 h (depending on the experimental design/end points).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology
                American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology
                American Physiological Society
                0363-6135
                1522-1539
                September 2011
                September 2011
                : 301
                : 3
                : H994-H1003
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cardiovascular Research Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York
                Article
                10.1152/ajpheart.00245.2011
                3191108
                21685270
                © 2011

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