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      Air-Stable NaxTMO2 Cathodes for Sodium Storage

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          Sodium-ion batteries are considered to be the most promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale stationary energy storage applications due to the abundant sodium resource in the Earth' crust and as a result, relatively low cost. Sodium layered transition metal oxides (Na x TMO 2) are proper Na-ion cathode materials because of low cost and high theoretical capacity. Currently most researchers focus on the improvement of electrochemical performance such as high rate capability and long cycling stability. However, for Na x TMO 2, the structure stability against humid atmosphere is essentially important since most of them are instable in air, which is not favorable for practical application. Here we provide a comprehensive review of recent progresses on air-stable Na x TMO 2 oxides. Several effective strategies are discussed, and further investigations on the air-stable cathodes are prospected.

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          Most cited references 123

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          Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides

           R. D. Shannon (1976)
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            Electrical energy storage for the grid: a battery of choices.

            The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.
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              Electrochemical energy storage for green grid.


                Author and article information

                Institute of New Energy for Vehicles, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University , Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Fan Zhang, Fudan University, China

                Reviewed by: Juchen Guo, University of California, Riverside, United States; Jianping Yang, Donghua University, China

                *Correspondence: Renyuan Zhang ryzhang@

                This article was submitted to Nanoscience, a section of the journal Frontiers in Chemistry

                Front Chem
                Front Chem
                Front. Chem.
                Frontiers in Chemistry
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                14 May 2019
                : 7
                Copyright © 2019 Zhang, Zhang and Huang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Figures: 13, Tables: 2, Equations: 4, References: 123, Pages: 15, Words: 9115
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai 10.13039/100007219


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