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Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of western ghats of Karnataka, India

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      Methanolic extracts of 6 wild edible mushrooms isolated from the Western Ghats of Karnataka were used in this study. Among the isolates (Lycoperdon perlatum, Cantharellus cibarius, Clavaria vermiculris, Ramaria formosa, Marasmius oreades, Pleurotus pulmonarius), only 4 showed satisfactory results. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). The concentration (IC50) ranged from 0.94 ± 0.27 mg/mL to 7.57 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Determination of antimicrobial activity profile of all the isolates tested against a panel of standard pathogenic bacteria and fungi indicated that the concentrations of bioactive components directly influence the antimicrobial capability of the isolates. Agar diffusion assay showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts of 4 isolates showed that they are also active even in least concentrations. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms.

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      Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea.

      A study was conducted to determine the content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidative activity of five edible and five medicinal mushrooms commonly cultivated in Korea. Phenolic compounds were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase activity. A total of 28 phenolic compounds were detected in the mushrooms studied. The average total concentration of phenolic compounds was 326 microg/g, the average being of 174 microg/g in edible mushrooms and 477 microg/g in medicinal mushrooms. The average total flavonoids concentration was 49 microg/g, with averages of 22 and 76 microg/g in edible and medicinal mushrooms, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activities ranged between 15 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 70% (Ganoderma lucidum) when reaction time was for 1 min. When reaction time was 30 min, the values ranged between 5 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 78% (Agaricus bisporus). The SOD activity averaged 28% among the 10 mushroom species, averages for edible and medicinal mushrooms being comparable. DPPH activities was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with total content of phenolic compounds in edible mushrooms, while in medicinal mushrooms there was a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between SOD activity and total concentration of phenolic compounds. Numerous significant positive correlations were observed between phenolic compounds detected and antioxidative potential.
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        Antioxidant activity of indigenous edible mushrooms.

        The current study was undertaken to measure the antioxidant potential from water and methanolic extracts of fruiting bodies of 23 species of mushrooms naturally grown in different geographic locations of India. The antioxidant ability of each species was analyzed for the total antioxidative status, employing multimechanistic antioxidative assays such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation, determination of reducing power, and free radical scavenging ability, in addition to determination of total phenolics and identification of phenolic acids by HPLC analysis, because the phenolics are known to contribute largely to antioxidant potential. The antioxidant potential of these varieties of mushrooms was determined by summing the antioxidative activity (AOA) of each variety by varied antioxidant assays followed by determining the relative percent of AOA defined as the "antioxidant index" (AI). On the basis of the AI, the mushroom species were graded as very high, high, moderate, and low. Termitomyces heimii was identified as the best variety, which showed 100% AI with 37 mg of phenolics/g of sample, 418 units of reducing power ability (RPA)/g, and an IC50 of approximately 1.1 mg (dry weight)/mL, free radical scavenging activity (FRS) in the water extract followed by 11.2 mg of phenolics/g, 275 units of RPA/g, and an IC50 of approximately 2.7 mg (dry weight)/mL of FRS in the methanolic extract. Following T. heimii, Termitomyces mummiformis exhibited an AI of 86% within the "very high" group. Potent inhibitions of lipid peroxidation of approximately 100 and 69% was also observed in T. heimii and T. mummiformis, respectively. Water extracts ranged from 34 to 49% and methanolic extracts varied from 20 to 32% on dry weight of mushroom fruiting body. Total phenolic compounds were higher in the water extracts (2-37 mg/g) than in methanolic extract (0.7-11.2 mg/g). The AOA measured in the water extract was better than that from the methanolic extract. HPLC analysis of phenolic acids in the two mushroom species, namely, T. heimii and T. mummiformis, displaying maximum AOA potential indicated a preponderance of tannic acid, gallic acid, protocatacheuic acid, and gentisic acid. Studies thus provide the precise antioxidant status of 23 indigenous species of mushrooms, which can serve as a useful database for the selection of mushrooms for the function of preparation of mushroom-based nutraceutics.
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          Effect of fruiting body maturity stage on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Lactarius sp. mushrooms.

          The effects of fruiting body maturity on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the wild mushrooms, Lactarius deliciosus and Lactarius piperatus, were evaluated. Immature and mature samples were analyzed for proximate constituents (moisture, fat, crude protein, ash, carbohydrates), nutritional value, and individual composition in fatty acids and sugars. Protein content, MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids), and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) percentages increased with the fruiting body maturity stage, while carbohydrate and SFA (saturated fatty acids) content decreased. The maturity stage did not significantly affect the individual sugar profile. The antimicrobial activity of the mushrooms was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi, and correlated to the amounts of phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, and lycopene present in the immature and mature fruiting bodies. Mature fruiting bodies with mature spores presented lower antimicrobial activity, which was in agreement with the bioactive compound content found in those samples.

            Author and article information

            Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka, India
            Author notes
            Address for correspondence: Manohar G. Pattar, Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad - 580 003, Karnataka, India. E-mail: pgmanohar@
            Pharmacognosy Res
            Pharmacognosy Research
            Medknow Publications Pvt Ltd (India )
            Mar-Apr 2010
            : 2
            : 2
            : 107-112
            Copyright © Pharmacognosy Research

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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