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      Determinants of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Uptake Among the Elderly in the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


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          Background: Despite the availability of a universal influenza vaccination program in the United States and Canada, seasonal influenza vaccine (SIV) uptake among the elderly remains suboptimal. Understanding the factors that determine SIV uptake in this important population subgroup is essential for designing effective interventions to improve seasonal influenza vaccination among the elderly. We evaluated the determinants of SIV uptake in the elderly in the United States and Canada. Methods: We systematically searched relevant bibliographic databases and websites from 2000 to 2017 for population-based clinical trials or observational studies conducted in community-based elderly individuals in the United States or Canada, irrespective of health status. Two reviewers independently screened the identified citations for eligibility using a two-stage sifting approach to review the title/abstract and full-text article. We gathered data on determinants of uptake (any vaccine receipt) and adherence (receipt of vaccine in more than one season) to seasonal influenza vaccination. Where possible, we pooled the data using inverse variance methods to minimize the variance of the weighted average. Results: Five cross-sectional studies on SIV uptake (none on adherence) from the United States met our eligibility criteria. Being older (pooled odds ratio [POR] = 1.44, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.11, 1.86); White (POR = 1.33, 95% CI = [1.10, 1.64]); and having higher income (POR = 1.06, 95% CI = [1.04, 1.09]); and health insurance (POR = 1.40, 95% CI = [1.25, 1.55]) were associated with increased SIV uptake. Conclusion: Older, ethnically White, higher income elderly individuals with access to health insurance coverage and a regular health care provider have higher SIV uptake in the United States. There was limited evidence for other socioeconomic and health-related determinants. Further studies are needed to provide an evidence base for planning more effective influenza vaccination programs in the United States.

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          Understanding associations among race, socioeconomic status, and health: Patterns and prospects.

          Race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) are social categories that capture differential exposure to conditions of life that have health consequences. Race/ethnicity and SES are linked to each other, but race matters for health even after SES is considered. This commentary considers the complex ways in which race combines with SES to affect health. There is a need for greater attention to understanding how risks and resources in the social environment are systematically patterned by race, ethnicity and SES, and how they combine to influence cardiovascular disease and other health outcomes. Future research needs to examine how the levels, timing and accumulation of institutional and interpersonal racism combine with other toxic exposures, over the life-course, to influence the onset and course of illness. There is also an urgent need for research that seeks to build the science base that will identify the multilevel interventions that are likely to enhance the health of all, even while they improve the health of disadvantaged groups more rapidly than the rest of the population so that inequities in health can be reduced and ultimately eliminated. We also need sustained research attention to identifying how to build the political support to reduce the large shortfalls in health. (PsycINFO Database Record
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            Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization Under the Affordable Care Act

            Objective: To examine racial and ethnic disparities in health care access and utilization after the Affordable Care Act (ACA) health insurance mandate was fully implemented in 2014. Research Design: Using the 2011–2014 National Health Interview Survey, we examine changes in health care access and utilization for the nonelderly US adult population. Multivariate linear probability models are estimated to adjust for demographic and sociodemographic factors. Results: The implementation of the ACA (year indicator 2014) is associated with significant reductions in the probabilities of being uninsured (coef=−0.03, P<0.001), delaying any necessary care (coef=−0.03, P<0.001), forgoing any necessary care (coef=−0.02, P<0.001), and a significant increase in the probability of having any physician visits (coef=0.02, P<0.001), compared with the reference year 2011. Interaction terms between the 2014 year indicator and race/ethnicity demonstrate that uninsured rates decreased more substantially among non-Latino African Americans (African Americans) (coef=−0.04, P<0.001) and Latinos (coef=−0.03, P<0.001) compared with non-Latino whites (whites). Latinos were less likely than whites to delay (coef=−0.02, P<0.001) or forgo (coef=−0.02, P<0.001) any necessary care and were more likely to have physician visits (coef=0.03, P<0.005) in 2014. The association between year indicator of 2014 and the probability of having any emergency department visits is not significant. Conclusions: Health care access and insurance coverage are major factors that contributed to racial and ethnic disparities before the ACA implementation. Our results demonstrate that racial and ethnic disparities in access have been reduced significantly during the initial years of the ACA implementation that expanded access and mandated that individuals obtain health insurance.
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              Race, ethnicity, culture, and disparities in health care.


                Author and article information

                Gerontol Geriatr Med
                Gerontol Geriatr Med
                Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                17 August 2019
                Jan-Dec 2019
                : 5
                : 2333721419870345
                [1 ]University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
                [2 ]Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA, USA
                Author notes
                [*]George N. Okoli, George & Fay Yee Centre for Healthcare Innovation, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, 753 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 0T6. Email: George.Okoli@ 123456umanitoba.ca
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2019

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                : 21 June 2019
                : 25 July 2019
                : 26 July 2019
                Funded by: Sanofi Pasteur USA, ;
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2019

                systematic review/meta-analysis,seasonal influenza vaccination,uptake/adherence,elderly,determinants,united states,canada


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