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      The Effect of Age, Gender, and Job on Skin Conductance Response among Smartphone Users Who are Prohibited from Using Their Smartphone


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          The smartphone is a widely used and rapidly growing phenomenon worldwide, and problematic smartphone use is common in our society. This study’s objective was to examine the gender difference of baseline and post-intervention skin conductance response (SCR) among smartphone users and explore the relationships among problematic smartphone use level, anxiety level, and SCR changes by evaluating SCR, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score, and the Chinese version of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) score in a one-group baseline and post-test design. Sixty participants were recruited from two communities, and data were collected from April to June 2017. There was a significant difference in terms of SCR changes between young males and old males and between young females and old females. Additionally, the SCR changes in young females were significantly greater than those in young males with twofold mean difference. This study provides strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of SCR measurement for assessing problematic smartphone use (PSU) anxiety when users are in a withdrawal-like state. The SCR measurement can help healthcare providers identify cases with risk factors of PSU for early intervention.

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          Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use.

          Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.
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            Relationship of Smartphone Use Severity with Sleep Quality, Depression, and Anxiety in University Students

            Background and Aims The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. Methods In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. Results The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and daytime dysfunction scores were higher in the high smartphone use group than in the low smartphone use group. Positive correlations were found between the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores and depression levels, anxiety levels, and some sleep quality scores. Conclusion The results indicate that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with smartphone overuse. Such overuse may lead to depression and/or anxiety, which can in turn result in sleep problems. University students with high depression and anxiety scores should be carefully monitored for smartphone addiction.
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              Can Disordered Mobile Phone Use Be Considered a Behavioral Addiction? An Update on Current Evidence and a Comprehensive Model for Future Research


                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                30 March 2020
                April 2020
                : 17
                : 7
                [1 ]School of Nursing, College of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan; hsiufen96@ 123456gmail.com (H.-F.H.); hthsu@ 123456kmu.edu.tw (H.-T.H.); pclin@ 123456kmu.edu.tw (P.-C.L.)
                [2 ]Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
                [3 ]Department of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien 97071, Taiwan; starthas@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ] Center for Big Data Analytics and Statistics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan City 333, Taiwan; anton.huang@ 123456gmail.com
                [5 ]Department of Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan; chihhungko@ 123456gmail.com
                [6 ]College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
                [7 ]Taiwan Nurses Association, Taipei 10681, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hhwang@ 123456kmu.edu.tw ; Tel.: +886-7-3121101 (ext. 2624)
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Public health
                problematic smartphone use,skin conductance response,anxiety,gender,withdrawal
                Public health
                problematic smartphone use, skin conductance response, anxiety, gender, withdrawal


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