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      Biomarkers in Sports and Exercise: Tracking Health, Performance, and Recovery in Athletes

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          Abstract

          Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Kavouras, SA, Queen, RM, Pryor, JL, and Casa, DJ. Biomarkers in sports and exercise: tracking health, performance, and recovery in athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2920–2937, 2017—Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs. Our approach was to review the current literature and recommend a collection of validated biomarkers in key categories of health, performance, and recovery that could be used for this purpose. We determined that a comprehensive performance set of biomarkers should include key markers of (a) nutrition and metabolic health, (b) hydration status, (c) muscle status, (d) endurance performance, (e) injury status and risk, and (f) inflammation. Our review will help coaches, clinical sport professionals, researchers, and athletes better understand how to comprehensively monitor physiologic changes, as they design training cycles that elicit maximal improvements in performance while minimizing overtraining and injury risk.

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          American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement.

          This Position Stand provides guidance on fluid replacement to sustain appropriate hydration of individuals performing physical activity. The goal of prehydrating is to start the activity euhydrated and with normal plasma electrolyte levels. Prehydrating with beverages, in addition to normal meals and fluid intake, should be initiated when needed at least several hours before the activity to enable fluid absorption and allow urine output to return to normal levels. The goal of drinking during exercise is to prevent excessive (>2% body weight loss from water deficit) dehydration and excessive changes in electrolyte balance to avert compromised performance. Because there is considerable variability in sweating rates and sweat electrolyte content between individuals, customized fluid replacement programs are recommended. Individual sweat rates can be estimated by measuring body weight before and after exercise. During exercise, consuming beverages containing electrolytes and carbohydrates can provide benefits over water alone under certain circumstances. After exercise, the goal is to replace any fluid electrolyte deficit. The speed with which rehydration is needed and the magnitude of fluid electrolyte deficits will determine if an aggressive replacement program is merited.
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            The biochemical basis of zinc physiology.

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              Biochemical markers of muscular damage.

              Muscle tissue may be damaged following intense prolonged training as a consequence of both metabolic and mechanical factors. Serum levels of skeletal muscle enzymes or proteins are markers of the functional status of muscle tissue, and vary widely in both pathological and physiological conditions. Creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase, myoglobin, troponin, aspartate aminotransferase, and carbonic anhydrase CAIII are the most useful serum markers of muscle injury, but apoptosis in muscle tissues subsequent to strenuous exercise may be also triggered by increased oxidative stress. Therefore, total antioxidant status can be used to evaluate the level of stress in muscle by other markers, such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, malondialdehyde, sulfhydril groups, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and others. As the various markers provide a composite picture of muscle status, we recommend using more than one to provide a better estimation of muscle stress.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Strength Cond Res
                J Strength Cond Res
                jscr
                Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
                Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
                1064-8011
                1533-4287
                October 2017
                19 July 2017
                : 31
                : 10
                : 2920-2937
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut;
                [2 ]Quest Diagnostics, Madison, New Jersey;
                [3 ]Department of Health, Human Performance, & Recreation, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas;
                [4 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Virginia; and
                [5 ]Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fresno, California
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to Dr. Elaine C. Lee, elaine.c.lee@ 123456uconn.edu .
                Article
                JSCR-08-8117 00031
                10.1519/JSC.0000000000002122
                5640004
                28737585
                e8530294-4353-4af4-83ad-d9720d1681ab
                Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the National Strength and Conditioning Association.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

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                hydration,muscle quality,endurance performance,injury prevention,inflammation

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