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      Pan-cancer analysis of whole genomes

      research-article

      The ICGC/TCGA Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes Consortium

      pc8@sanger.ac.uk
      gadgetz@broadinstitute.org
      korbel@embl.de
      jstuart@ucsc.edu
      lincoln.stein@gmail.com
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      Nature Publishing Group UK

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          Abstract

          Cancer is driven by genetic change, and the advent of massively parallel sequencing has enabled systematic documentation of this variation at the whole-genome scale 13 . Here we report the integrative analysis of 2,658 whole-cancer genomes and their matching normal tissues across 38 tumour types from the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We describe the generation of the PCAWG resource, facilitated by international data sharing using compute clouds. On average, cancer genomes contained 4–5 driver mutations when combining coding and non-coding genomic elements; however, in around 5% of cases no drivers were identified, suggesting that cancer driver discovery is not yet complete. Chromothripsis, in which many clustered structural variants arise in a single catastrophic event, is frequently an early event in tumour evolution; in acral melanoma, for example, these events precede most somatic point mutations and affect several cancer-associated genes simultaneously. Cancers with abnormal telomere maintenance often originate from tissues with low replicative activity and show several mechanisms of preventing telomere attrition to critical levels. Common and rare germline variants affect patterns of somatic mutation, including point mutations, structural variants and somatic retrotransposition. A collection of papers from the PCAWG Consortium describes non-coding mutations that drive cancer beyond those in the TERT promoter 4 ; identifies new signatures of mutational processes that cause base substitutions, small insertions and deletions and structural variation 5, 6 ; analyses timings and patterns of tumour evolution 7 ; describes the diverse transcriptional consequences of somatic mutation on splicing, expression levels, fusion genes and promoter activity 8, 9 ; and evaluates a range of more-specialized features of cancer genomes 8, 1018 .

          Abstract

          The flagship paper of the ICGC/TCGA Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes Consortium describes the generation of the integrative analyses of 2,658 cancer whole genomes and their matching normal tissues across 38 tumour types, the structures for international data sharing and standardized analyses, and the main scientific findings from across the consortium studies.

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          Most cited references106

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          Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation

          The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            A global reference for human genetic variation

            The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.
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              Fast and accurate long-read alignment with Burrows–Wheeler transform

              Motivation: Many programs for aligning short sequencing reads to a reference genome have been developed in the last 2 years. Most of them are very efficient for short reads but inefficient or not applicable for reads >200 bp because the algorithms are heavily and specifically tuned for short queries with low sequencing error rate. However, some sequencing platforms already produce longer reads and others are expected to become available soon. For longer reads, hashing-based software such as BLAT and SSAHA2 remain the only choices. Nonetheless, these methods are substantially slower than short-read aligners in terms of aligned bases per unit time. Results: We designed and implemented a new algorithm, Burrows-Wheeler Aligner's Smith-Waterman Alignment (BWA-SW), to align long sequences up to 1 Mb against a large sequence database (e.g. the human genome) with a few gigabytes of memory. The algorithm is as accurate as SSAHA2, more accurate than BLAT, and is several to tens of times faster than both. Availability: http://bio-bwa.sourceforge.net Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                pc8@sanger.ac.uk
                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Nature
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                5 February 2020
                5 February 2020
                2020
                : 578
                : 7793
                : 82-93
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0606 5382, GRID grid.10306.34, Wellcome Sanger Institute, ; Hinxton, UK
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Department of Haematology, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [3 ]GRID grid.66859.34, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, ; Cambridge, MA USA
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0386 9924, GRID grid.32224.35, Center for Cancer Research, , Massachusetts General Hospital, ; Boston, MA USA
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0386 9924, GRID grid.32224.35, Department of Pathology, , Massachusetts General Hospital, ; Boston, MA USA
                [6 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9709 7726, GRID grid.225360.0, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), , European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), ; Hinxton, UK
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0495 846X, GRID grid.4709.a, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), , Genome Biology Unit, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [9 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0740 6917, GRID grid.205975.c, Biomolecular Engineering Department, , University of California Santa Cruz, ; Santa Cruz, CA USA
                [10 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, Adaptive Oncology Initiative, , Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [11 ]International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC)/ICGC Accelerating Research in Genomic Oncology (ICGC-ARGO) Secretariat, Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [12 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, Computational Biology Program, , Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [13 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Molecular Genetics, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [14 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2297 6811, GRID grid.266102.1, Department of Radiation Oncology, , University of California San Francisco, ; San Francisco, CA USA
                [15 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, Genome Informatics Program, , Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [16 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Cell and Systems Biology, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [17 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, Genome Informatics, , Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [18 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Medical Biophysics, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [19 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0386 9924, GRID grid.32224.35, Massachusetts General Hospital, ; Boston, MA USA
                [20 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Pharmacology, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [21 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9632 6718, GRID grid.19006.3e, University of California Los Angeles, ; Los Angeles, CA USA
                [22 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Pathology, Department of Genomic Medicine and Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [23 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Department of Genetics, , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [24 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [25 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0473 9646, GRID grid.42327.30, The Hospital for Sick Children, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [26 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, , Washington University School of Medicine, ; St Louis, MO USA
                [27 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, The McDonnell Genome Institute, , Washington University, ; St Louis, MO USA
                [28 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [29 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Heidelberg Center for Personalized Oncology (DKFZ-HIPO), , German Cancer Research Center, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [30 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 4373, GRID grid.7700.0, Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, and BioQuant, , Heidelberg University, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [31 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Bioinformatics and Omics Data Analytics, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [32 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [33 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2160 926X, GRID grid.39382.33, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, , Baylor College of Medicine, ; Houston, TX USA
                [34 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2160 926X, GRID grid.39382.33, Human Genome Sequencing Center, , Baylor College of Medicine, ; Houston, TX USA
                [35 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, Department of Genetics and Department of Medicine, , Washington University in St Louis, ; St Louis, MO USA
                [36 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Computer Science, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [37 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0740 6917, GRID grid.205975.c, University of California Santa Cruz, ; Santa Cruz, CA USA
                [38 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9758 5690, GRID grid.5288.7, Computational Biology Program, , Oregon Health & Science University, ; Portland, OR USA
                [39 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, The Institute of Medical Science, , The University of Tokyo, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [40 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0387 1602, GRID grid.10097.3f, Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [41 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1516 2393, GRID grid.5947.f, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, , Norwegian University of Science and Technology, ; Trondheim, Norway
                [42 ]ISNI 0000000109410645, GRID grid.11794.3a, Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine and Chronic Diseases (CiMUS), , Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, ; Santiago de Compostela, Spain
                [43 ]ISNI 0000000109410645, GRID grid.11794.3a, Department of Zoology, Genetics and Physical Anthropology, Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine and Chronic Diseases (CiMUS), , Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, ; Santiago de Compostela, Spain
                [44 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2097 6738, GRID grid.6312.6, The Biomedical Research Centre (CINBIO), , Universidade de Vigo, ; Vigo, Spain
                [45 ]ISNI 0000000419368956, GRID grid.168010.e, Department of Genetics, , Stanford University School of Medicine, ; Stanford, CA USA
                [46 ]Annai Systems, Carlsbad, CA USA
                [47 ]GRID grid.473715.3, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), , The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [48 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 1447, GRID grid.10392.39, Institute of Medical Genetics and Applied Genomics, , University of Tübingen, ; Tübingen, Germany
                [49 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2172 2676, GRID grid.5612.0, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [50 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2165 4204, GRID grid.9851.5, Department of Computational Biology, , University of Lausanne, ; Lausanne, Switzerland
                [51 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2322 4988, GRID grid.8591.5, Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, , University of Geneva Medical School, ; Geneva, Switzerland
                [52 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2322 4988, GRID grid.8591.5, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, , University of Geneva, ; Geneva, Switzerland
                [53 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Genomics Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, , Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                [54 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2172 2676, GRID grid.5612.0, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Institute of Evolutionary Biology (UPF-CSIC), , Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [55 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Transmissible Cancer Group, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [56 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 7754, GRID grid.255649.9, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, , Ewha Womans University, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [57 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, Division of Oncology, , Washington University School of Medicine, ; St Louis, MO USA
                [58 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0599 1243, GRID grid.43169.39, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, , Xi’an Jiaotong University, ; Xi’an, China
                [59 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0599 1243, GRID grid.43169.39, The First Affiliated Hospital, , Xi’an Jiaotong University, ; Xi’an, China
                [60 ]Independent Consultant, Wellesley, MA USA
                [61 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0670 2351, GRID grid.59734.3c, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, ; New York, NY USA
                [62 ]GRID grid.431797.f, Biobyte Solutions, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [63 ]ISNI 0000000419368710, GRID grid.47100.32, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, , Yale University, ; New Haven, CT USA
                [64 ]ISNI 0000000419368710, GRID grid.47100.32, Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, , Yale University, ; New Haven, CT USA
                [65 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, , University of Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [66 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, , University of Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [67 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9952, GRID grid.51462.34, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, , Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [68 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, The McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University School of Medicine, and Department of Genetics and Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, , Washington University in St Louis, ; St Louis, MO USA
                [69 ]ISNI 0000000419368710, GRID grid.47100.32, Department of Computer Science, , Yale University, ; New Haven, CT USA
                [70 ]ISNI 000000041936877X, GRID grid.5386.8, Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center, , Weill Cornell Medicine, ; New York, NY USA
                [71 ]ISNI 000000041936877X, GRID grid.5386.8, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, , Weill Cornell Medicine, ; New York, NY USA
                [72 ]ISNI 000000041936877X, GRID grid.5386.8, Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, , Weill Cornell Medicine, ; New York, NY USA
                [73 ]ISNI 000000041936877X, GRID grid.5386.8, Institute for Computational Biomedicine, , Weill Cornell Medicine, ; New York, NY USA
                [74 ]GRID grid.473715.3, CNAG-CRG, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), , Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [75 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2172 2676, GRID grid.5612.0, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, , Institute of Evolutionary Biology (UPF-CSIC), Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [76 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9601 989X, GRID grid.425902.8, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [77 ]GRID grid.7080.f, Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, , Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, ; Barcelona, Spain
                [78 ]ISNI 0000000419368956, GRID grid.168010.e, Department of Biomedical Data Science, , Stanford University School of Medicine, ; Stanford, CA USA
                [79 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2153 9986, GRID grid.9764.c, Human Genetics, , University of Kiel, ; Kiel, Germany
                [80 ]GRID grid.410712.1, Institute of Human Genetics, , Ulm University and Ulm University Medical Center, ; Ulm, Germany
                [81 ]RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan
                [82 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Department of Oncology, Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [83 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [84 ]Quantitative Genomics Laboratories (qGenomics), Barcelona, Spain
                [85 ]ISNI 0000 0004 6023 5303, GRID grid.430406.5, Sage Bionetworks, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [86 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2292 3357, GRID grid.14848.31, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, , University of Montreal, Montreal, ; Quebec, Canada
                [87 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1811 6966, GRID grid.7722.0, Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [88 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0502 9283, GRID grid.22401.35, National Centre for Biological Sciences, , Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, ; Bangalore, India
                [89 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2172 2676, GRID grid.5612.0, Research Program on Biomedical Informatics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [90 ]GRID grid.66859.34, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, ; Cambridge, MA USA
                [91 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1795 1830, GRID grid.451388.3, The Francis Crick Institute, ; London, UK
                [92 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0668 7884, GRID grid.5596.f, University of Leuven, ; Leuven, Belgium
                [93 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Centre for Molecular Science Informatics, Department of Chemistry, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [94 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Department of Biomedical Informatics, , Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                [95 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Ludwig Center at Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                [96 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8075, GRID grid.48336.3a, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, , National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                [97 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2110 5790, GRID grid.280664.e, Genome Integrity and Structural Biology Laboratory, , National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), ; Durham, NC USA
                [98 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2110 5790, GRID grid.280664.e, Integrative Bioinformatics Support Group, , National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), ; Durham, NC USA
                [99 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2218 4662, GRID grid.6363.0, Department of Urology, , Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, ; Berlin, Germany
                [100 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0674 042X, GRID grid.5254.6, Finsen Laboratory and Biotech Research & Innovation Centre (BRIC), , University of Copenhagen, ; Copenhagen, Denmark
                [101 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2107 4242, GRID grid.266100.3, Department of Bioengineering and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Moores Cancer Center, , University of California San Diego, ; La Jolla, CA USA
                [102 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0247, GRID grid.5841.8, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, , University of Barcelona, IRSJD, IBUB, ; Barcelona, Spain
                [103 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9314 1427, GRID grid.413448.e, CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), ; Madrid, Spain
                [104 ]Research Group on Statistics, Econometrics and Health (GRECS), UdG, Barcelona, Spain
                [105 ]Oxford Nanopore Technologies, New York, NY USA
                [106 ]GRID grid.437060.6, Applications Department, , Oxford Nanopore Technologies, ; Oxford, UK
                [107 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 6568, GRID grid.30064.31, School of Molecular Biosciences and Center for Reproductive Biology, , Washington State University, ; Pullman, WA USA
                [108 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8075, GRID grid.48336.3a, Laboratory of Translational Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, , National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                [109 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0410 2071, GRID grid.7737.4, Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Genome-Scale Biology Research Program, , University of Helsinki, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [110 ]ISNI 0000000419368710, GRID grid.47100.32, Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology, , Yale University, ; New Haven, CT USA
                [111 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0410 2071, GRID grid.7737.4, Applied Tumor Genomics Research Program, Research Programs Unit, , University of Helsinki, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [112 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9952, GRID grid.51462.34, Computational Biology Center, , Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [113 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 2780, GRID grid.5801.c, Department of Biology, , ETH Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [114 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 2780, GRID grid.5801.c, Department of Computer Science, , ETH Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [115 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2223 3006, GRID grid.419765.8, SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, ; Lausanne, Switzerland
                [116 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0478 9977, GRID grid.412004.3, University Hospital Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [117 ]ISNI 000000041936877X, GRID grid.5386.8, Weill Cornell Medical College, ; New York, NY USA
                [118 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1014 0849, GRID grid.419491.0, Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, , Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, ; Berlin, Germany
                [119 ]German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner site Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [120 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [121 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2297 6811, GRID grid.266102.1, Bakar Computational Health Sciences Institute and Department of Pediatrics, , University of California, ; San Francisco, CA USA
                [122 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Department of Biostatistics, Bloomberg School of Public Health, , Johns Hopkins University, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [123 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8617 4175, GRID grid.469474.c, Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, , The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [124 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Division of Computational Genomics and Systems Genetics, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [125 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2107 4242, GRID grid.266100.3, Department of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center, , Division of Biomedical Informatics, UC San Diego School of Medicine, ; San Diego, CA USA
                [126 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0628 2985, GRID grid.412330.7, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, , Tampere University and Tays Cancer Center, Tampere University Hospital, ; Tampere, Finland
                [127 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Division of Applied Bioinformatics, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [128 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 4373, GRID grid.7700.0, Faculty of Biosciences, , Heidelberg University, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [129 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 826X, GRID grid.1009.8, Centre for Law and Genetics, , University of Tasmania, ; Hobart, Tasmania Australia
                [130 ]GRID grid.411640.6, Centre of Genomics and Policy, , McGill University and Génome Québec Innovation Centre, Montreal, ; Quebec, Canada
                [131 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1939 6592, GRID grid.461593.c, Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [132 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0740 6917, GRID grid.205975.c, UC Santa Cruz Genomics Institute, , University of California Santa Cruz, ; Santa Cruz, CA USA
                [133 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1503 7226, GRID grid.5808.5, CIBIO/InBIO, Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, , Universidade do Porto, ; Vairão, Portugal
                [134 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8700 1153, GRID grid.7719.8, Bioinformatics Unit, , Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), ; Madrid, Spain
                [135 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0740 6917, GRID grid.205975.c, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, , University of California Santa Cruz, ; Santa Cruz, CA USA
                [136 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Cancer Unit, MRC University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [137 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology and Department of Systems Biology, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [138 ]GRID grid.484013.a, Center for Digital Health, , Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and Charitè–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, ; Berlin, Germany
                [139 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Heidelberg Center for Personalized Oncology (DKFZ-HIPO), , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [140 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, , University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [141 ]ISNI 0000000106344187, GRID grid.265892.2, Department of Genetics and Informatics Institute, , University of Alabama at Birmingham, ; Birmingham, AL USA
                [142 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 4373, GRID grid.7700.0, Heidelberg University, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [143 ]GRID grid.484013.a, New BIH Digital Health Center, , Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, ; Berlin, Germany
                [144 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0247, GRID grid.5841.8, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine, , University of Barcelona, ; Barcelona, Spain
                [145 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2288 9830, GRID grid.17091.3e, Department of Urologic Sciences, , University of British Columbia, ; Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
                [146 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0684 7796, GRID grid.412541.7, Vancouver Prostate Centre, ; Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
                [147 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1450, GRID grid.24515.37, Division of Life Science and Applied Genomics Center, , Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, ; Hong Kong, China
                [148 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [149 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0328 4908, GRID grid.5253.1, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [150 ]Genome Integration Data Center, Syntekabio, Daejon, South Korea
                [151 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0386 9924, GRID grid.32224.35, Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Cancer Research, ; Charlestown, MA USA
                [152 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0512 597X, GRID grid.154185.c, Department of Molecular Medicine (MOMA), , Aarhus University Hospital, ; Aarhus, Denmark
                [153 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1956 2722, GRID grid.7048.b, Bioinformatics Research Centre (BiRC), , Aarhus University, ; Aarhus, Denmark
                [154 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0790 959X, GRID grid.411377.7, Indiana University, ; Bloomington, IN USA
                [155 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7494, GRID grid.61971.38, Simon Fraser University, ; Burnaby, British Columbia Canada
                [156 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2106 9910, GRID grid.65499.37, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, ; Boston, MA USA
                [157 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0599 1243, GRID grid.43169.39, School of Computer Science and Technology, , Xi’an Jiaotong University, ; Xi’an, China
                [158 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, Department of Genetics, , Washington University School of Medicine, ; St Louis, MO USA
                [159 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, Department of Mathematics, , Washington University in St Louis, ; St Louis, MO USA
                [160 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2188 0463, GRID grid.423940.8, Department of Biological Oceanography, , Leibniz Institute of Baltic Sea Research, ; Rostock, Germany
                [161 ]GRID grid.492568.4, Seven Bridges Genomics, ; Charlestown, MA USA
                [162 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7822, GRID grid.170205.1, University of Chicago, ; Chicago, IL USA
                [163 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 989X, GRID grid.264381.a, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, , Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [164 ]Samsung Genome Institute, Seoul, South Korea
                [165 ]GRID grid.429884.b, New York Genome Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [166 ]ISNI 000000041936877X, GRID grid.5386.8, Weill Cornell Medicine, ; New York, NY USA
                [167 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2106 9910, GRID grid.65499.37, Department of Medical Oncology, , Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, ; Boston, MA USA
                [168 ]GRID grid.475435.4, Rigshospitalet, ; Copenhagen, Denmark
                [169 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Computer Science, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [170 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, The Donnelly Centre, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [171 ]GRID grid.494618.6, Vector Institute, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [172 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5964, GRID grid.256753.0, Department of Medical Genetics, , College of Medicine, Hallym University, ; Chuncheon, South Korea
                [173 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 2780, GRID grid.5801.c, Department of Biology, , ETH Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [174 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0478 9977, GRID grid.412004.3, University Hospital Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [175 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2256 9319, GRID grid.11135.37, Peking University, ; Beijing, China
                [176 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2256 9319, GRID grid.11135.37, School of Life Sciences, , Peking University, ; Beijing, China
                [177 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 715X, GRID grid.418377.e, Computational and Systems Biology, , Genome Institute of Singapore, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [178 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2180 6431, GRID grid.4280.e, School of Computing, , National University of Singapore, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [179 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2034 1839, GRID grid.21155.32, BGI-Shenzhen, ; Shenzhen, China
                [180 ]China National GeneBank-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China
                [181 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9952, GRID grid.51462.34, Computational & Systems Biology Program, , Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [182 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0840 2678, GRID grid.222754.4, Korea University, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [183 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Genomic Medicine, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [184 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2160 926X, GRID grid.39382.33, Quantitative & Computational Biosciences Graduate Program, , Baylor College of Medicine, ; Houston, TX USA
                [185 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0374 0039, GRID grid.249880.f, The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, ; Farmington, CT USA
                [186 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2193 314X, GRID grid.8756.c, Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, , University of Glasgow, ; Bearsden, UK
                [187 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0503, GRID grid.22098.31, The Azrieli Faculty of Medicine, , Bar-Ilan University, ; Safed, Israel
                [188 ]ISNI 0000000121901201, GRID grid.83440.3b, University College London, ; London, UK
                [189 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 715X, GRID grid.418377.e, Genome Institute of Singapore, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [190 ]ISNI 0000000106344187, GRID grid.265892.2, Department of Epidemiology, , University of Alabama at Birmingham, ; Birmingham, AL USA
                [191 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0408 3720, GRID grid.417691.c, HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, ; Huntsville, AL USA
                [192 ]ISNI 0000000106344187, GRID grid.265892.2, O’Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center, , University of Alabama at Birmingham, ; Birmingham, AL USA
                [193 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, , Karolinska Institutet, ; Stockholm, Sweden
                [194 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2180 6431, GRID grid.4280.e, Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, , National University of Singapore, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [195 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0385 0924, GRID grid.428397.3, Programme in Cancer & Stem Cell Biology, , Duke-NUS Medical School, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [196 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 9905, GRID grid.419385.2, SingHealth, Duke-NUS Institute of Precision Medicine, , National Heart Centre Singapore, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [197 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 9243, GRID grid.418812.6, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [198 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 9745, GRID grid.410724.4, Laboratory of Cancer Epigenome, Division of Medical Science, , National Cancer Centre Singapore, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [199 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2160 926X, GRID grid.39382.33, Department of Medicine, , Baylor College of Medicine, ; Houston, TX USA
                [200 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 9745, GRID grid.410724.4, National Cancer Centre Singapore, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [201 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2256 9319, GRID grid.11135.37, BIOPIC, ICG and College of Life Sciences, , Peking University, ; Beijing, China
                [202 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0675 8654, GRID grid.411083.f, Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [203 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2106 9910, GRID grid.65499.37, Department of Cancer Biology, , Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, ; Boston, MA USA
                [204 ]GRID grid.473715.3, Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), , The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [205 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1956 2722, GRID grid.7048.b, Department of Mathematics, , Aarhus University, ; Aarhus, Denmark
                [206 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1767 9005, GRID grid.20522.37, Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [207 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [208 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2191 4301, GRID grid.415310.2, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, ; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [209 ]DLR Project Management Agency, Bonn, Germany
                [210 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0352 8618, GRID grid.440163.4, Genome Canada, ; Ottawa, Ontario Canada
                [211 ]Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, Mexico City, Mexico
                [212 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0639 2885, GRID grid.5586.e, Federal Ministry of Education and Research, ; Berlin, Germany
                [213 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2284 9388, GRID grid.14925.3b, Institut Gustave Roussy, ; Villejuif, France
                [214 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2189 059X, GRID grid.455095.8, Institut National du Cancer (INCA), ; Boulogne-Billancourt, France
                [215 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0427 7672, GRID grid.52788.30, The Wellcome Trust, ; London, UK
                [216 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4652 6665, GRID grid.453281.9, Prostate Cancer Canada, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [217 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2297 5165, GRID grid.94365.3d, National Human Genome Research Institute, , National Institutes of Health, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                [218 ]GRID grid.410865.e, Department of Biotechnology, , Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, ; Delhi, India
                [219 ]Science Writer, Garrett Park, MD USA
                [220 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0422 0975, GRID grid.11485.39, Cancer Research UK, ; London, UK
                [221 ]Chinese Cancer Genome Consortium, Shenzhen, China
                [222 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0027 0586, GRID grid.412474.0, Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), , Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, ; Beijing, China
                [223 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0027 0586, GRID grid.412474.0, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), , Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, ; Beijing, China
                [224 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2168 5385, GRID grid.272242.3, National Cancer Center, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [225 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2161 6363, GRID grid.453370.6, German Cancer Aid, ; Bonn, Germany
                [226 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2168 5385, GRID grid.272242.3, Division of Cancer Genomics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, , National Cancer Center, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [227 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, , Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, ; Minato-ku, Tokyo Japan
                [228 ]ISNI 0000 0004 5373 4593, GRID grid.480536.c, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, ; Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo Japan
                [229 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 948X, GRID grid.411475.2, Medical Oncology, , University and Hospital Trust of Verona, ; Verona, Italy
                [230 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1763 1124, GRID grid.5611.3, University of Verona, ; Verona, Italy
                [231 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2297 5165, GRID grid.94365.3d, National Cancer Institute, , National Institutes of Health, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                [232 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0481 6099, GRID grid.5012.6, CAPHRI Research School, , Maastricht University, ; Maastricht, The Netherlands
                [233 ]Laboratory for Medical Science Mathematics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan
                [234 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2107 4242, GRID grid.266100.3, University of California San Diego, ; San Diego, CA USA
                [235 ]PDXen Biosystems, Seoul, South Korea
                [236 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9148 4899, GRID grid.36303.35, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, ; Daejeon, South Korea
                [237 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0680 8770, GRID grid.239552.a, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, ; Philadelphia, PA USA
                [238 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, University of Melbourne Centre for Cancer Research, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [239 ]Syntekabio, Daejon, South Korea
                [240 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0572 4227, GRID grid.431072.3, AbbVie, ; North Chicago, IL USA
                [241 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, Genomics Research Program, , Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [242 ]Department of Pediatric Immunology, Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany
                [243 ]GRID grid.482664.a, Heidelberg Institute for Stem Cell Technology and Experimental Medicine (HI-STEM), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [244 ]Seven Bridges, Charlestown, MA USA
                [245 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2107 4242, GRID grid.266100.3, Health Sciences Department of Biomedical Informatics, , University of California San Diego, ; La Jolla, CA USA
                [246 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Functional and Structural Genomics, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [247 ]Leidos Biomedical Research, McLean, VA USA
                [248 ]CSRA Incorporated, Fairfax, VA USA
                [249 ]ISNI 0000000419368956, GRID grid.168010.e, Department of Internal Medicine, , Stanford University, ; Stanford, CA USA
                [250 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2223 3006, GRID grid.419765.8, Clinical Bioinformatics, , Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, ; Geneva, Switzerland
                [251 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0478 9977, GRID grid.412004.3, Institute for Pathology and Molecular Pathology, , University Hospital Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [252 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0650, GRID grid.7400.3, Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, , University of Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [253 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2341 2786, GRID grid.116068.8, MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ; Cambridge, MA USA
                [254 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0650, GRID grid.7400.3, Institute of Molecular Life Sciences and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, , University of Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [255 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8075, GRID grid.48336.3a, Office of Cancer Genomics, , National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                [256 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1797 8275, GRID grid.433146.7, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; Beijing, China
                [257 ]Geneplus-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China
                [258 ]Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, MA USA
                [259 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Department of Pediatrics, , Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                [260 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 8870, GRID grid.5170.3, Technical University of Denmark, ; Lyngby, Denmark
                [261 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0674 042X, GRID grid.5254.6, University of Copenhagen, ; Copenhagen, Denmark
                [262 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, Department for BioMedical Research, , University of Bern, ; Bern, Switzerland
                [263 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, Department of Medical Oncology, Inselspital, , University Hospital and University of Bern, ; Bern, Switzerland
                [264 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, , University of Bern, ; Bern, Switzerland
                [265 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology - Research, Division of Cancer Medicine, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [266 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0670 2351, GRID grid.59734.3c, Department of Urology, , Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, ; New York, NY USA
                [267 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2292 0500, GRID grid.37172.30, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, ; Daejeon, South Korea
                [268 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9457, GRID grid.8993.b, Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, , Uppsala University, ; Uppsala, Sweden
                [269 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9320 7537, GRID grid.1003.2, Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, , The University of Queensland, ; Brisbane, Queensland Australia
                [270 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 1754, GRID grid.7563.7, University of Milano Bicocca, ; Monza, Italy
                [271 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, , University of Melbourne, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [272 ]GRID grid.468222.8, Center for Precision Health, School of Biomedical Informatics, , The University of Texas Health Science Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [273 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9194 7179, GRID grid.411941.8, Health Data Science Unit, , University Clinics, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [274 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, Department for Biomedical Research, , University of Bern, ; Bern, Switzerland
                [275 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0628 9810, GRID grid.410914.9, Research Core Center, , National Cancer Centre Korea, ; Goyang-si, South Korea
                [276 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1958 0162, GRID grid.413454.3, Institute of Computer Science, , Polish Academy of Sciences, ; Warsawa, Poland
                [277 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Harvard University, ; Cambridge, MA USA
                [278 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9952, GRID grid.51462.34, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [279 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2069 7798, GRID grid.5342.0, Department of Information Technology, , Ghent University, ; Ghent, Belgium
                [280 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2069 7798, GRID grid.5342.0, Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, , Ghent University, ; Ghent, Belgium
                [281 ]ISNI 0000000419368710, GRID grid.47100.32, Yale School of Medicine, , Yale University, ; New Haven, CT USA
                [282 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 989X, GRID grid.264381.a, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, , Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [283 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 989X, GRID grid.264381.a, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, , Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [284 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0533 2389, GRID grid.263136.3, Cheonan Industry-Academic Collaboration Foundation, , Sangmyung University, ; Cheonan, South Korea
                [285 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8700 1153, GRID grid.7719.8, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, ; Madrid, Spain
                [286 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2097 5006, GRID grid.16750.35, Department of Computer Science, , Princeton University, ; Princeton, NJ USA
                [287 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, Bern Center for Precision Medicine, , University Hospital of Bern, University of Bern, ; Bern, Switzerland
                [288 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8499 1112, GRID grid.413734.6, Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, , Weill Cornell Medicine and New York Presbyterian Hospital, ; New York, NY USA
                [289 ]ISNI 000000041936877X, GRID grid.5386.8, Meyer Cancer Center, , Weill Cornell Medicine, ; New York, NY USA
                [290 ]ISNI 000000041936877X, GRID grid.5386.8, Pathology and Laboratory, , Weill Cornell Medical College, ; New York, NY USA
                [291 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, cBio Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, , Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                [292 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Department of Cell Biology, , Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                [293 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2106 9910, GRID grid.65499.37, cBio Center, , Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, ; Boston, MA USA
                [294 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1754 9200, GRID grid.419082.6, CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [295 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1014 9130, GRID grid.265073.5, Department of Medical Science Mathematics, Medical Research Institute, , Tokyo Medical and Dental University, ; Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo Japan
                [296 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Laboratory for Medical Science Mathematics, Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, , The University of Tokyo, ; Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo Japan
                [297 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Oncology-Pathology, , Karolinska Institutet, ; Stockholm, Sweden
                [298 ]ISNI 0000000110107715, GRID grid.6988.f, Department of Gene Technology, , Tallinn University of Technology, ; Tallinn, Estonia
                [299 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0473 9646, GRID grid.42327.30, Genetics & Genome Biology Program, SickKids Research Institute, , The Hospital for Sick Children, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [300 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2069 7798, GRID grid.5342.0, Department of Information Technology, , Ghent University, Interuniversitair Micro-Electronica Centrum (IMEC), ; Ghent, Belgium
                [301 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9457, GRID grid.8993.b, Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Immunology, , Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, ; Uppsala, Sweden
                [302 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9758 5690, GRID grid.5288.7, Oregon Health & Sciences University, ; Portland, OR USA
                [303 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0482, GRID grid.10784.3a, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, , The Chinese University of Hong Kong, ; Shatin, Hong Kong China
                [304 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9206 2401, GRID grid.267308.8, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, ; Houston, TX USA
                [305 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2285 7943, GRID grid.261331.4, Department of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, , The Ohio State University, ; Columbus, OH USA
                [306 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2285 7943, GRID grid.261331.4, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center (OSUCCC – James), ; Columbus, OH USA
                [307 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9206 2401, GRID grid.267308.8, The University of Texas School of Biomedical Informatics (SBMI) at Houston, ; Houston, TX USA
                [308 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2299 3507, GRID grid.16753.36, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, , Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, ; Chicago, IL USA
                [309 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0386 9924, GRID grid.32224.35, Physics Division, Optimization and Systems Biology Lab, , Massachusetts General Hospital, ; Boston, MA USA
                [310 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, , The University of Tokyo, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [311 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2230 9752, GRID grid.9647.c, Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, , University of Leipzig, ; Leipzig, Germany
                [312 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2230 9752, GRID grid.9647.c, Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics, , University of Leipzig, ; Leipzig, Germany
                [313 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2152 9905, GRID grid.50956.3f, Center for Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics, , Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, ; Los Angeles, CA USA
                [314 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9999 5706, GRID grid.418245.e, Computational Biology, , Leibniz Institute on Aging - Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI), ; Jena, Germany
                [315 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2230 9752, GRID grid.9647.c, Transcriptome Bioinformatics, LIFE Research Center for Civilization Diseases, , University of Leipzig, ; Leipzig, Germany
                [316 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0406 2057, GRID grid.251017.0, Center for Epigenetics, , Van Andel Research Institute, ; Grand Rapids, MI USA
                [317 ]GRID grid.10403.36, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), ; Barcelona, Spain
                [318 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, , The University of Tokyo, ; Minato-ku, Tokyo Japan
                [319 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0406 2057, GRID grid.251017.0, Van Andel Research Institute, ; Grand Rapids, MI USA
                [320 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Cancer Epigenomics, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [321 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2152 9905, GRID grid.50956.3f, Department of Biomedical Sciences, , Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, ; Los Angeles, CA USA
                [322 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0538, GRID grid.9619.7, The Hebrew University Faculty of Medicine, ; Jerusalem, Israel
                [323 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [324 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Department of Pathology, , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [325 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [326 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0534 4718, GRID grid.418158.1, Foundation Medicine, ; Cambridge, MA USA
                [327 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2182 2255, GRID grid.28046.38, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, , University of Ottawa, ; Ottawa, Ontario Canada
                [328 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [329 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [330 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9473, GRID grid.253264.4, Brandeis University, ; Waltham, MA USA
                [331 ]Hopp Children’s Cancer Center (KiTZ), Heidelberg, Germany
                [332 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Pediatric Glioma Research Group, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [333 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0619 6198, GRID grid.435025.5, A. A. Kharkevich Institute of Information Transmission Problems, ; Moscow, Russia
                [334 ]GRID grid.465331.6, Oncology and Immunology, , Dmitry Rogachev National Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, ; Moscow, Russia
                [335 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0555 3608, GRID grid.454320.4, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, ; Moscow, Russia
                [336 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0302 820X, GRID grid.412484.f, Center for Medical Innovation, , Seoul National University Hospital, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [337 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0302 820X, GRID grid.412484.f, Department of Internal Medicine, , Seoul National University Hospital, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [338 ]Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA
                [339 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0721 1626, GRID grid.11914.3c, School of Medicine/School of Mathematics and Statistics, , University of St Andrews, ; St Andrews, UK
                [340 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2294 1395, GRID grid.1049.c, Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, , QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, ; Brisbane, Queensland Australia
                [341 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9320 7537, GRID grid.1003.2, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, , University of Queensland, ; Brisbane, Queensland Australia
                [342 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9011 8547, GRID grid.239395.7, Cancer Research Institute, , Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, ; Boston, MA USA
                [343 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7822, GRID grid.170205.1, Ben May Department for Cancer Research, Department of Human Genetics, , The University of Chicago, ; Chicago, IL USA
                [344 ]ISNI 000000041936877X, GRID grid.5386.8, Tri-Institutional PhD Program in Computational Biology and Medicine, , Weill Cornell Medicine, ; New York, NY USA
                [345 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2107 4242, GRID grid.266100.3, Department of Bioengineering, and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Moores Cancer Center, , University of California, San Diego, ; La Jolla, CA USA
                [346 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0385 0924, GRID grid.428397.3, Centre for Computational Biology, , Duke-NUS Medical School, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [347 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0410 2071, GRID grid.7737.4, Department of Computer Science, , University of Helsinki, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [348 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0410 2071, GRID grid.7737.4, Institute of Biotechnology, , University of Helsinki, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [349 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0410 2071, GRID grid.7737.4, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, , University of Helsinki, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [350 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0385 0924, GRID grid.428397.3, Programme in Cancer & Stem Cell Biology, Centre for Computational Biology, , Duke-NUS Medical School, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [351 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, , Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [352 ]ISNI 0000000419368729, GRID grid.21729.3f, Department of Statistics, , Columbia University, ; New York, NY USA
                [353 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0385 0924, GRID grid.428397.3, Duke-NUS Medical School, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [354 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0368 7223, GRID grid.33199.31, School of Electronic Information and Communications, , Huazhong University of Science and Technology, ; Wuhan, China
                [355 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4902 0432, GRID grid.1005.4, The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Cancer Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, , University of New South Wales, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [356 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7988, GRID grid.4305.2, MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC IGMM, , University of Edinburgh, ; Edinburgh, UK
                [357 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0657 4636, GRID grid.4808.4, Bioinformatics Group, Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, , University of Zagreb, ; Zagreb, Croatia
                [358 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2168 5385, GRID grid.272242.3, Department of Bioinformatics, Division of Cancer Genomics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, , National Cancer Center, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [359 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2193 314X, GRID grid.8756.c, University of Glasgow, ; Glasgow, UK
                [360 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Academic Department of Medical Genetics, , University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, ; Cambridge, UK
                [361 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, MRC Cancer Unit, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [362 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, The University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, ; Cambridge, UK
                [363 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0393 3981, GRID grid.301713.7, MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, ; Glasgow, UK
                [364 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2193 314X, GRID grid.8756.c, Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, , University of Glasgow, ; Bearsden, UK
                [365 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2193 314X, GRID grid.8756.c, School of Computing Science, , University of Glasgow, ; Glasgow, UK
                [366 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4902 0432, GRID grid.1005.4, South Western Sydney Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, , University of New South Wales, ; Liverpool, New South Wales Australia
                [367 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9825 7840, GRID grid.411714.6, West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, , Glasgow Royal Infirmary, ; Glasgow, UK
                [368 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, University of Melbourne Centre for Cancer Research, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [369 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9758 5690, GRID grid.5288.7, Molecular and Medical Genetics, , Oregon Health & Science University, ; Portland, OR USA
                [370 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, Department of Surgery, , University of Melbourne, ; Parkville, Victoria Australia
                [371 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0614 0346, GRID grid.416107.5, The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, , Royal Children’s Hospital, ; Parkville, Victoria Australia
                [372 ]Walter + Eliza Hall Institute, Parkville, Victoria Australia
                [373 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8580 3777, GRID grid.6190.e, University of Cologne, ; Cologne, Germany
                [374 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, The Edward S. Rogers Sr Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [375 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0721 6013, GRID grid.8954.0, University of Ljubljana, ; Ljubljana, Slovenia
                [376 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7822, GRID grid.170205.1, Department of Public Health Sciences, , The University of Chicago, ; Chicago, IL USA
                [377 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0400 4439, GRID grid.240372.0, Research Institute, , NorthShore University HealthSystem, ; Evanston, IL USA
                [378 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0740 6917, GRID grid.205975.c, Department of Statistics, , University of California Santa Cruz, ; Santa Cruz, CA USA
                [379 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0383 8386, GRID grid.24029.3d, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, ; Cambridge, UK
                [380 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [381 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0445 5969, GRID grid.253692.9, Department of Computer Science, , Carleton College, ; Northfield, MN USA
                [382 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9758 5690, GRID grid.5288.7, Molecular and Medical Genetics, , Oregon Health & Science University, ; Portland, OR USA
                [383 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0400 4439, GRID grid.240372.0, Center for Psychiatric Genetics, , NorthShore University HealthSystem, ; Evanston, IL USA
                [384 ]Argmix Consulting, North Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
                [385 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Biostatistics, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [386 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Department of Biostatistics, , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [387 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [388 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9758 5690, GRID grid.5288.7, Molecular and Medical Genetics, Knight Cancer Institute, , Oregon Health & Science University, ; Portland, OR USA
                [389 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2242 4849, GRID grid.177174.3, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, , Kyushu University, ; Fukuoka, Japan
                [390 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2160 926X, GRID grid.39382.33, Baylor College of Medicine, ; Houston, TX USA
                [391 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, , Johns Hopkins University, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [392 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0665 103X, GRID grid.418481.0, Heinrich Pette Institute, , Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, ; Hamburg, Germany
                [393 ]University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Bioinformatics Core, Hamburg, Germany
                [394 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0447 4123, GRID grid.421605.4, Earlham Institute, ; Norwich, UK
                [395 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1092 7967, GRID grid.8273.e, Norwich Medical School, , University of East Anglia, ; Norwich, UK
                [396 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1271 4623, GRID grid.18886.3f, The Institute of Cancer Research, ; London, UK
                [397 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1092 7967, GRID grid.8273.e, University of East Anglia, ; Norwich, UK
                [398 ]German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg-Borstel-Lübeck-Riems, Hamburg, Germany
                [399 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Division of Molecular Genetics, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [400 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Pathology, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [401 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0465 4247, GRID grid.433802.e, Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, ; Southbank, Victoria Australia
                [402 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, , University of Melbourne, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [403 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8972, GRID grid.25879.31, University of Pennsylvania, ; Philadelphia, PA USA
                [404 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0436 7430, GRID grid.452919.2, Centre for Cancer Research, , The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [405 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0180 6477, GRID grid.413252.3, Department of Gynaecological Oncology, , Westmead Hospital, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [406 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2294 430X, GRID grid.414733.6, Genetics and Molecular Pathology, , SA Pathology, ; Adelaide, South Australia Australia
                [407 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Centre for Cancer Research, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, , The University of Sydney, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [408 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0180 6477, GRID grid.413252.3, Department of Gynaecological Oncology, , Westmead Hospital, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [409 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9983 6924, GRID grid.415306.5, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, ; Darlinghurst, New South Wales Australia
                [410 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, GRID grid.1008.9, Department of Clinical Pathology, , University of Melbourne, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [411 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Centre for Cancer Research, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, , The University of Sydney, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [412 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0180 6477, GRID grid.413252.3, Department of Gynaecological Oncology, , Westmead Hospital, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [413 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0436 7430, GRID grid.452919.2, Westmead Clinical School, , The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [414 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 948X, GRID grid.411475.2, Department of Surgery, Pancreas Institute, , University and Hospital Trust of Verona, ; Verona, Italy
                [415 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0380 2017, GRID grid.412744.0, Department of Surgery, , Princess Alexandra Hospital, ; Brisbane, Queensland Australia
                [416 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9320 7537, GRID grid.1003.2, Surgical Oncology Group, Diamantina Institute, , The University of Queensland, ; Brisbane, Queensland Australia
                [417 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 948X, GRID grid.411475.2, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, , University and Hospital Trust of Verona, ; Verona, Italy
                [418 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 948X, GRID grid.411475.2, ARC-Net Centre for Applied Research on Cancer, , University and Hospital Trust of Verona, ; Verona, Italy
                [419 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9781 7439, GRID grid.417154.2, Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District L3 Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, ; Wollongong, New South Wales Australia
                [420 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Department of Pathology, , University of Sydney, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [421 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 3343, GRID grid.9654.e, School of Biological Sciences, , The University of Auckland, ; Auckland, New Zealand
                [422 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 948X, GRID grid.411475.2, Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, , University and Hospital Trust of Verona, ; Verona, Italy
                [423 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 948X, GRID grid.411475.2, Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, , University and Hospital Trust of Verona, ; Verona, Italy
                [424 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2177 007X, GRID grid.415490.d, Department of Pathology, , Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, ; Glasgow, UK
                [425 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0606 0717, GRID grid.422301.6, Department of Medical Oncology, , Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, ; Glasgow, UK
                [426 ]Academic Unit of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
                [427 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0385 0051, GRID grid.413249.9, Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, , Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, ; Camperdown, New South Wales Australia
                [428 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9939 5719, GRID grid.1029.a, Discipline of Surgery, , Western Sydney University, ; Penrith, New South Wales Australia
                [429 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2193 314X, GRID grid.8756.c, Institute of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences, , University of Glasgow, ; Glasgow, UK
                [430 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4902 0432, GRID grid.1005.4, The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Cancer Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, , University of New South Wales, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [431 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8831 109X, GRID grid.266842.c, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, , The University of Newcastle, ; Ourimbah, New South Wales Australia
                [432 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7857, GRID grid.1002.3, Eastern Clinical School, Monash University, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [433 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0459 5396, GRID grid.414539.e, Epworth HealthCare, ; Richmond, Victoria Australia
                [434 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2342 0938, GRID grid.1018.8, Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, , La Trobe University, ; Heidelberg, Victoria Australia
                [435 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Melanoma Institute Australia, , The University of Sydney, ; Wollstonecraft, New South Wales Australia
                [436 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Children’s Hospital at Westmead, , The University of Sydney, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [437 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Melanoma Institute Australia, , The University of Sydney, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [438 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0474 1797, GRID grid.1011.1, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, , James Cook University, ; Douglas, Queensland Australia
                [439 ]GRID grid.484025.f, Bioplatforms Australia, ; North Ryde, New South Wales Australia
                [440 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2158 5405, GRID grid.1004.5, Melanoma Institute Australia, , Macquarie University, ; Wollstonecraft, New South Wales Australia
                [441 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0619 2154, GRID grid.414235.5, Children’s Medical Research Institute, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [442 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Melanoma Institute Australia, , The University of Sydney, ; Wollstonecraft, New South Wales Australia
                [443 ]Centre for Cancer Research, The Westmead Millennium Institute for Medical Research, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [444 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Translational Cancer Research Centre, , The University of Sydney at the Westmead Institute, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [445 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Discipline of Pathology, Sydney Medical School, , The University of Sydney, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [446 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, School of Mathematics and Statistics, , The University of Sydney, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [447 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Melanoma Institute Australia, , The University of Sydney, ; Wollstonecraft, New South Wales Australia
                [448 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0385 0051, GRID grid.413249.9, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [449 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, Diagnostic Development, , Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [450 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, Ontario Tumour Bank, , Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [451 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, PanCuRx Translational Research Initiative, , Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [452 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0474 0428, GRID grid.231844.8, BioSpecimen Sciences Program, , University Health Network, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [453 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0474 0428, GRID grid.231844.8, Hepatobiliary/Pancreatic Surgical Oncology Program, , University Health Network, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [454 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0473 9881, GRID grid.416166.2, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, , Mount Sinai Hospital, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [455 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2150 066X, GRID grid.415224.4, Division of Medical Oncology, , Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [456 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0666 4105, GRID grid.266813.8, University of Nebraska Medical Center, ; Omaha, NE USA
                [457 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0474 0428, GRID grid.231844.8, BioSpecimen Sciences Program, , University Health Network, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [458 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, Transformative Pathology, , Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [459 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2150 066X, GRID grid.415224.4, University Health Network, , Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [460 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0459 167X, GRID grid.66875.3a, Department of Health Sciences Research, , Mayo Clinic, ; Rochester, MN USA
                [461 ]BioSpecimen Sciences, Laboratory Medicine (Toronto), Medical Biophysics, PanCuRX, Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [462 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [463 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9952, GRID grid.51462.34, Department of Pathology, Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, , Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [464 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Medical Biophysics, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [465 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9684, GRID grid.27860.3b, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, , University California at Davis, ; Sacramento, CA USA
                [466 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4652 6825, GRID grid.459583.6, Human Longevity, ; San Diego, CA USA
                [467 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2150 066X, GRID grid.415224.4, Department of Surgical Oncology, , Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [468 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0626 690X, GRID grid.419890.d, Genome Informatics Program, , Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [469 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2150 066X, GRID grid.415224.4, STTARR Innovation Facility, , Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [470 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0661 1177, GRID grid.417184.f, Department of Pathology, Toronto General Hospital, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [471 ]CRUK Manchester Institute and Centre, Manchester, UK
                [472 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Radiation Oncology, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [473 ]ISNI 0000000121662407, GRID grid.5379.8, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Cancer Division, FBMH, , University of Manchester, ; Manchester, UK
                [474 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2150 066X, GRID grid.415224.4, Radiation Medicine Program, , Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [475 ]GRID grid.256896.6, Hefei University of Technology, ; Anhui, China
                [476 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 4404, GRID grid.233520.5, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, , Fourth Military Medical University, ; Shaanxi, China
                [477 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 4404, GRID grid.233520.5, Fourth Military Medical University, ; Shaanxi, China
                [478 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0027 0586, GRID grid.412474.0, Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), , Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, ; Beijing, China
                [479 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0368 8293, GRID grid.16821.3c, Department of Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, , Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, ; Shanghai, China
                [480 ]Leeds Institute of Medical Research, University of Leeds, St James’s University Hospital, Leeds, UK
                [481 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8649, GRID grid.14709.3b, Canadian Center for Computational Genomics, , McGill University, ; Montreal, Quebec Canada
                [482 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8649, GRID grid.14709.3b, Department of Human Genetics, , McGill University, ; Montreal, Quebec Canada
                [483 ]ISNI 0000000405980095, GRID grid.17703.32, International Agency for Research on Cancer, ; Lyon, France
                [484 ]GRID grid.411640.6, McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, ; Montreal, Quebec Canada
                [485 ]St James Institute of Oncology, University of Leeds, St James’s University Hospital, Leeds, UK
                [486 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0775 3222, GRID grid.9845.0, Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, , University of Latvia, ; Riga, Latvia
                [487 ]Centre National de Génotypage, CEA - Institute de Génomique, Evry, France
                [488 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0647 2973, GRID grid.256155.0, Department of Oncology, Gil Medical Center, , Gachon University, ; Incheon, South Korea
                [489 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0702 3000, GRID grid.248762.d, Department of Molecular Oncology, , BC Cancer Agency, ; Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
                [490 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0428 3079, GRID grid.148313.c, Los Alamos National Laboratory, ; Los Alamos, NM USA
                [491 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0389 8485, GRID grid.55325.34, Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, , Oslo University Hospital, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, ; Oslo, Norway
                [492 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0930 2361, GRID grid.4514.4, Lund University, ; Lund, Sweden
                [493 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0200 3174, GRID grid.418116.b, Translational Research Lab, , Centre Léon Bérard, ; Lyon, France
                [494 ]ISNI 0000000122931605, GRID grid.5590.9, Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, , Radboud University, ; Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [495 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, , Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                [496 ]GRID grid.430814.a, Department of Molecular Pathology, , The Netherlands Cancer Institute, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [497 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [498 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Department of Oncology, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [499 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0684 291X, GRID grid.418119.4, Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory J. C. Heuson, , Institut Jules Bordet, ; Brussels, Belgium
                [500 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0668 7884, GRID grid.5596.f, Laboratory for Translational Breast Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, , KU Leuven, ; Leuven, Belgium
                [501 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0790 3681, GRID grid.5284.b, Translational Cancer Research Unit, GZA Hospitals St-Augustinus, Center for Oncological Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, , University of Antwerp, ; Antwerp, Belgium
                [502 ]Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics and Department of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                [503 ]Icelandic Cancer Registry, Icelandic Cancer Society, Reykjavik, Iceland
                [504 ]ISNI 000000040459992X, GRID grid.5645.2, Department of Medical Oncology, , Josephine Nefkens Institute and Cancer Genomics Centre, Erasmus Medical Center, ; Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [505 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0633 7958, GRID grid.482251.8, National Genotyping Center, , Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, ; Taipei, Taiwan
                [506 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0389 8485, GRID grid.55325.34, Department of Pathology, , Oslo University Hospital Ulleval, ; Oslo, Norway
                [507 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8921, GRID grid.5510.1, Faculty of Medicine and Institute of Clinical Medicine, , University of Oslo, ; Oslo, Norway
                [508 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9952, GRID grid.51462.34, Department of Pathology, , Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [509 ]Department of Pathology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                [510 ]ISNI 0000000404654431, GRID grid.5650.6, Department of Pathology, , Academic Medical Center, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [511 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1364 9317, GRID grid.49606.3d, Department of Pathology, , College of Medicine, Hanyang University, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [512 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0533 4667, GRID grid.267370.7, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, , Ulsan University, Songpa-gu, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [513 ]GRID grid.430814.a, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [514 ]Department of Surgery, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA USA
                [515 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9952, GRID grid.51462.34, Department of Surgery, , Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [516 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7443, GRID grid.7914.b, Department of Clinical Science, , University of Bergen, ; Bergen, Norway
                [517 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [518 ]The University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, The Royal Brisbane & Women’s Hospital, Herston, Queensland Australia
                [519 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0684 291X, GRID grid.418119.4, Department of Pathology, , Institut Jules Bordet, ; Brussels, Belgium
                [520 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1364 9317, GRID grid.49606.3d, Institute for Bioengineering and Biopharmaceutical Research (IBBR), , Hanyang University, ; Seoul, South Korea
                [521 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8921, GRID grid.5510.1, University of Oslo, ; Oslo, Norway
                [522 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0639 0505, GRID grid.476460.7, Institut Bergonié, ; Bordeaux, France
                [523 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2322 6764, GRID grid.13097.3c, Department of Research Oncology, , Guy’s Hospital, King’s Health Partners AHSC, King’s College London School of Medicine, ; London, UK
                [524 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0638 9213, GRID grid.411158.8, University Hospital of Minjoz, INSERM UMR 1098, ; Besançon, France
                [525 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0383 8386, GRID grid.24029.3d, Cambridge Breast Unit, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, , Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, ; Cambridge, UK
                [526 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9009 9462, GRID grid.416266.1, East of Scotland Breast Service, , Ninewells Hospital, ; Aberdeen, UK
                [527 ]Oncologie Sénologie, ICM Institut Régional du Cancer, Montpellier, France
                [528 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0444 9382, GRID grid.10417.33, Department of Radiation Oncology, , Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, ; Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [529 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0640 0021, GRID grid.14013.37, University of Iceland, ; Reykjavik, Iceland
                [530 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9009 9462, GRID grid.416266.1, Dundee Cancer Centre, Ninewells Hospital, ; Dundee, UK
                [531 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0639 6384, GRID grid.418596.7, Institut Curie, INSERM Unit 830, ; Paris, France
                [532 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0444 9382, GRID grid.10417.33, Department of Laboratory Medicine, , Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, ; Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [533 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9486 5048, GRID grid.163555.1, Department of General Surgery, , Singapore General Hospital, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [534 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2172 4233, GRID grid.25697.3f, INCa-Synergie, Centre Léon Bérard, , Universite Lyon, ; Lyon, France
                [535 ]Giovanni Paolo II/I.R.C.C.S. Cancer Institute, Bari, Italy
                [536 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0200 3174, GRID grid.418116.b, Department of Biopathology, , Centre Léon Bérard, ; Lyon, France
                [537 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2150 7757, GRID grid.7849.2, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, ; Villeurbanne, France
                [538 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 9745, GRID grid.410724.4, NCCS-VARI Translational Research Laboratory, , National Cancer Centre Singapore, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [539 ]ISNI 000000040459992X, GRID grid.5645.2, Department of Pathology, , Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, ; Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [540 ]GRID grid.430814.a, Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, , The Netherlands Cancer Institute, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [541 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2153 9986, GRID grid.9764.c, Institute of Human Genetics, , Christian-Albrechts-University, ; Kiel, Germany
                [542 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9748, GRID grid.6582.9, Institute of Human Genetics, , University of Ulm, ; Ulm, Germany
                [543 ]GRID grid.410712.1, University Hospital of Ulm, ; Ulm, Germany
                [544 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2153 9986, GRID grid.9764.c, Hematopathology Section, Institute of Pathology, , Christian-Albrechts-University, ; Kiel, Germany
                [545 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9529 9877, GRID grid.10423.34, Department of Human Genetics, , Hannover Medical School, ; Hannover, Germany
                [546 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2176 9917, GRID grid.411327.2, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Clinical Immunology, , Heinrich-Heine-University, ; Düsseldorf, Germany
                [547 ]Department of Internal Medicine/Hematology, Friedrich-Ebert-Hospital, Neumünster, Germany
                [548 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0551 4246, GRID grid.16149.3b, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, , University Hospital Muenster, ; Muenster, Germany
                [549 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0646 2097, GRID grid.412468.d, Department of Pediatrics, , University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, ; Kiel, Germany
                [550 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1958 8658, GRID grid.8379.5, Department of Medicine II, , University of Würzburg, ; Würzburg, Germany
                [551 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9721, GRID grid.7839.5, Senckenberg Institute of Pathology, , University of Frankfurt Medical School, ; Frankfurt, Germany
                [552 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2218 4662, GRID grid.6363.0, Institute of Pathology, , Charité–University Medicine Berlin, ; Berlin, Germany
                [553 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0646 2097, GRID grid.412468.d, Department for Internal Medicine II, , University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, ; Kiel, Germany
                [554 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2230 9752, GRID grid.9647.c, Institute for Medical Informatics Statistics and Epidemiology, , University of Leipzig, ; Leipzig, Germany
                [555 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2364 4210, GRID grid.7450.6, Department of Hematology and Oncology, , Georg-Augusts-University of Göttingen, ; Göttingen, Germany
                [556 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2187 5445, GRID grid.5718.b, Institute of Cell Biology (Cancer Research), , University of Duisburg-Essen, ; Essen, Germany
                [557 ]MVZ Department of Oncology, PraxisClinic am Johannisplatz, Leipzig, Germany
                [558 ]GRID grid.410712.1, Institute of Pathology, , Ulm University and University Hospital of Ulm, ; Ulm, Germany
                [559 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0603 4965, GRID grid.416008.b, Department of Pathology, , Robert-Bosch-Hospital, ; Stuttgart, Germany
                [560 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8584 9230, GRID grid.411067.5, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, , University Hospital Giessen, ; Giessen, Germany
                [561 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2153 9986, GRID grid.9764.c, Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, , Christian-Albrechts-University, ; Kiel, Germany
                [562 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1958 8658, GRID grid.8379.5, Institute of Pathology, , University of Wuerzburg, ; Wuerzburg, Germany
                [563 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2153 9986, GRID grid.9764.c, Department of General Internal Medicine, , University Kiel, ; Kiel, Germany
                [564 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8785 9045, GRID grid.459927.4, Clinic for Hematology and Oncology, , St-Antonius-Hospital, ; Eschweiler, Germany
                [565 ]GRID grid.410712.1, Department for Internal Medicine III, , University of Ulm and University Hospital of Ulm, ; Ulm, Germany
                [566 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Neuroblastoma Genomics, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [567 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8580 3777, GRID grid.6190.e, Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, , University of Cologne, ; Cologne, Germany
                [568 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2176 9917, GRID grid.411327.2, University of Düsseldorf, ; Düsseldorf, Germany
                [569 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9071 0620, GRID grid.419538.2, Department of Vertebrate Genomics/Otto Warburg Laboratory Gene Regulation and Systems Biology of Cancer, , Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, ; Berlin, Germany
                [570 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0224 711X, GRID grid.240871.8, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, ; Memphis, TN USA
                [571 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0328 4908, GRID grid.5253.1, Heidelberg University Hospital, ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [572 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Genomics and Proteomics Core Facility High Throughput Sequencing Unit, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [573 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [574 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2180 3484, GRID grid.13648.38, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, ; Hamburg, Germany
                [575 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2180 3484, GRID grid.13648.38, Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center, , University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, ; Hamburg, Germany
                [576 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2180 3484, GRID grid.13648.38, Institute of Pathology, , University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, ; Hamburg, Germany
                [577 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0492 0584, GRID grid.7497.d, Division of Cancer Genome Research, , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), ; Heidelberg, Germany
                [578 ]GRID grid.410872.8, National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, ; Kalyani, India
                [579 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1769 5793, GRID grid.410871.b, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research & Education in Cancer, , Tata Memorial Centre, ; Navi Mumbai, India
                [580 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 3470, GRID grid.5608.b, Department of Pathology, General Hospital of Treviso, Department of Medicine, , University of Padua, ; Treviso, Italy
                [581 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 3470, GRID grid.5608.b, Department of Medicine (DIMED), Surgical Pathology Unit, , University of Padua, ; Padua, Italy
                [582 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2168 5385, GRID grid.272242.3, Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology, , Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery Division, Division of Pathology and Clinical Laboratories, National Cancer Center Hospital, Chuo-ku, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [583 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9959, GRID grid.26091.3c, Department of Pathology, , Keio University School of Medicine, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [584 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2168 5385, GRID grid.272242.3, Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology, , National Cancer Center Hospital, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [585 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, , The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [586 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, , The University of Tokyo, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [587 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2168 5385, GRID grid.272242.3, Gastric Surgery Division, Division of Pathology and Clinical Laboratories, , National Cancer Center Hospital, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [588 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1033 6139, GRID grid.268441.d, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, , Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, ; Kanagawa, Japan
                [589 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, , University of Tokyo, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [590 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0373 3971, GRID grid.136593.b, Department of Cancer Genome Informatics, Graduate School of Medicine, , Osaka University, ; Osaka, Japan
                [591 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8711 3200, GRID grid.257022.0, Hiroshima University, ; Hiroshima, Japan
                [592 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0720 6587, GRID grid.410818.4, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, ; Tokyo, Japan
                [593 ]Osaka International Cancer Center, Osaka, Japan
                [594 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1763 1087, GRID grid.412857.d, Wakayama Medical University, ; Wakayama, Japan
                [595 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2173 7691, GRID grid.39158.36, Hokkaido University, ; Sapporo, Japan
                [596 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 9745, GRID grid.410724.4, Division of Medical Oncology, , National Cancer Centre, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [597 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 0856, GRID grid.9786.0, Cholangiocarcinoma Screening and Care Program and Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, , Khon Kaen University, ; Khon Kaen, Thailand
                [598 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 9745, GRID grid.410724.4, Lymphoma Genomic Translational Research Laboratory, , National Cancer Centre, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [599 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0540 9980, GRID grid.415180.9, Center of Digestive Diseases and Liver Transplantation, , Fundeni Clinical Institute, ; Bucharest, Romania
                [600 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0647 8419, GRID grid.414067.0, Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, , Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, ; Daegu, South Korea
                [601 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0247, GRID grid.5841.8, Pathology, Hospital Clinic, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), , University of Barcelona, ; Barcelona, Spain
                [602 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0247, GRID grid.5841.8, Hematology, Hospital Clinic, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), , University of Barcelona, ; Barcelona, Spain
                [603 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University Institute of Oncology-IUOPA, Oviedo, Spain
                [604 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0247, GRID grid.5841.8, Anatomia Patológica, Hospital Clinic, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), , University of Barcelona, ; Barcelona, Spain
                [605 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0373 1271, GRID grid.451322.3, Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, ; Madrid, Spain
                [606 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0417 7890, GRID grid.416177.2, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital (Bolsover), ; London, UK
                [607 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0389 8485, GRID grid.55325.34, Department of Pathology, , Oslo University Hospital, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, ; Oslo, Norway
                [608 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8921, GRID grid.5510.1, Institute of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Oral Biology, , University of Oslo, ; Oslo, Norway
                [609 ]ISNI 0000000121901201, GRID grid.83440.3b, Research Department of Pathology, , University College London Cancer Institute, ; London, UK
                [610 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0383 8386, GRID grid.24029.3d, East Anglian Medical Genetics Service, , Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, ; Cambridge, UK
                [611 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0417 7890, GRID grid.416177.2, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital (Stanmore), ; London, UK
                [612 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0389 8485, GRID grid.55325.34, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, , Oslo University Hospital, ; Oslo, Norway
                [613 ]ISNI 0000000121901201, GRID grid.83440.3b, Department of Pathology (Research), , University College London Cancer Institute, ; London, UK
                [614 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, , University of Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [615 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1762 5736, GRID grid.8982.b, University of Pavia, ; Pavia, Italy
                [616 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Karolinska Institute, ; Stockholm, Sweden
                [617 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0606 5382, GRID grid.10306.34, Wellcome Sanger Institute, ; Hinxton, UK
                [618 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, University of Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [619 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0237 2025, GRID grid.412346.6, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, ; Salford, UK
                [620 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0489 6543, GRID grid.413144.7, Gloucester Royal Hospital, ; Gloucester, UK
                [621 ]GRID grid.439344.d, Royal Stoke University Hospital, ; Stoke-on-Trent, UK
                [622 ]GRID grid.425213.3, St Thomas’s Hospital, ; London, UK
                [623 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2113 8111, GRID grid.7445.2, Imperial College NHS Trust, Imperial College London, ; London, UK
                [624 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0237 2025, GRID grid.412346.6, Department of Histopathology, , Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, ; Salford, UK
                [625 ]ISNI 0000000121662407, GRID grid.5379.8, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, , The University of Manchester, ; Manchester, UK
                [626 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0709 1919, GRID grid.418716.d, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, ; Edinburgh, UK
                [627 ]GRID grid.439436.f, Barking Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, ; Romford, UK
                [628 ]GRID grid.420545.2, King’s College London and Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, ; London, UK
                [629 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0383 8386, GRID grid.24029.3d, Cambridge Oesophagogastric Centre, , Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, ; Cambridge, UK
                [630 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0440 1889, GRID grid.240404.6, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, ; Nottingham, UK
                [631 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0372 6120, GRID grid.412946.c, St Luke’s Cancer Centre, , Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, ; Guildford, UK
                [632 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [633 ]GRID grid.240367.4, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Trust, ; Norwich, UK
                [634 ]GRID grid.15628.38, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, ; Coventry, UK
                [635 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0376 6589, GRID grid.412563.7, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, ; Birmingham, UK
                [636 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0374 7521, GRID grid.4777.3, Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, , Queen’s University, ; Belfast, UK
                [637 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9297, GRID grid.5491.9, School of Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, , University of Southampton, ; Southampton, UK
                [638 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0422 2524, GRID grid.417286.e, Wythenshawe Hospital, ; Manchester, UK
                [639 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 1133, GRID grid.4868.2, Barts Cancer Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, , Queen Mary University of London, ; London, UK
                [640 ]Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London and Sutton, London, UK
                [641 ]GRID grid.430506.4, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, ; Southampton, UK
                [642 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1887 2462, GRID grid.420746.3, HCA Laboratories, ; London, UK
                [643 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8470, GRID grid.10025.36, University of Liverpool, ; Liverpool, UK
                [644 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Academic Urology Group, Department of Surgery, , University of Cambridge, ; Cambridge, UK
                [645 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, University of Oxford, Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [646 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [647 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0369 1660, GRID grid.73113.37, Second Military Medical University, ; Shanghai, China
                [648 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2113 8111, GRID grid.7445.2, Department of Surgery and Cancer, , Imperial College London, ; London, UK
                [649 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0482, GRID grid.10784.3a, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, ; Shatin, Hong Kong China
                [650 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, , University of Oxford, Headington, ; Oxford, UK
                [651 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0383 8386, GRID grid.24029.3d, Department of Histopathology, , Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, ; Cambridge, UK
                [652 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology and Department of Systems Biology, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [653 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8075, GRID grid.48336.3a, Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, , National Cancer Institute, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                [654 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0702 3000, GRID grid.248762.d, Canada’s Michael Smith Genome Sciences Center, , BC Cancer Agency, ; Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
                [655 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9952, GRID grid.51462.34, Center for Molecular Oncology, , Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [656 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0474 0428, GRID grid.231844.8, University Health Network, ; Toronto, Ontario Canada
                [657 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [658 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2164 3847, GRID grid.67105.35, Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, , Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, ; Cleveland, OH USA
                [659 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9149 4843, GRID grid.443867.a, Research Health Analytics and Informatics, , University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, ; Cleveland, OH USA
                [660 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7697, GRID grid.22072.35, Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Institute, , University of Calgary, ; Calgary, Alberta Canada
                [661 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7697, GRID grid.22072.35, Department of Surgery and Department of Oncology, , University of Calgary, ; Calgary, Alberta Canada
                [662 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8687 5377, GRID grid.272799.0, Buck Institute for Research on Aging, ; Novato, CA USA
                [663 ]ISNI 0000000100241216, GRID grid.189509.c, Duke University Medical Center, ; Durham, NC USA
                [664 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 6853, GRID grid.42505.36, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, , University of Southern California, ; Los Angeles, CA USA
                [665 ]ISNI 0000000100241216, GRID grid.189509.c, The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center, , Duke University Medical Center, ; Durham, NC USA
                [666 ]ISNI 0000000419368710, GRID grid.47100.32, Department of Dermatology and Department of Pathology, , Yale University, ; New Haven, CT USA
                [667 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0456 6466, GRID grid.412530.1, Fox Chase Cancer Center, ; Philadelphia, PA USA
                [668 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, , The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [669 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9081 2336, GRID grid.412590.b, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, ; Ann Arbor, MI USA
                [670 ]ISNI 0000000106344187, GRID grid.265892.2, University of Alabama at Birmingham, ; Birmingham, AL USA
                [671 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0459 167X, GRID grid.66875.3a, Division of Anatomic Pathology, , Mayo Clinic, ; Rochester, MN USA
                [672 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0459 167X, GRID grid.66875.3a, Division of Experimental Pathology, , Mayo Clinic, ; Rochester, MN USA
                [673 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8617 4175, GRID grid.469474.c, Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, , The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [674 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0641 0756, GRID grid.450294.e, International Genomics Consortium, ; Phoenix, AZ USA
                [675 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Department of Pediatrics and Department of Genetics, , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [676 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0440 3018, GRID grid.415596.a, Department of Pathology, , UPMC Shadyside, ; Pittsburgh, PA USA
                [677 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8075, GRID grid.48336.3a, Center for Cancer Genomics, , National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                [678 ]Department of Neuro-Oncology, Istituto Neurologico Besta, Milan, Italy
                [679 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0614 0266, GRID grid.415184.d, University of Queensland Thoracic Research Centre, The Prince Charles Hospital, ; Brisbane, Queensland Australia
                [680 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8091, GRID grid.15276.37, Department of Neurosurgery, , University of Florida, ; Gainesville, FL USA
                [681 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Center for Biomedical Informatics, , Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                [682 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Cancer Biology, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [683 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Surgical Oncology, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [684 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0459 167X, GRID grid.66875.3a, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, , Mayo Clinic, ; Rochester, MN USA
                [685 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8606, GRID grid.26790.3a, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, , University of Miami, ; Miami, FL USA
                [686 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [687 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0386 9246, GRID grid.267301.1, University of Tennessee Health Science Center for Cancer Research, ; Memphis, TN USA
                [688 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0702 3000, GRID grid.248762.d, Centre for Translational and Applied Genomics, , British Columbia Cancer Agency, ; Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
                [689 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2160 926X, GRID grid.39382.33, Department of Pathology & Immunology, , Baylor College of Medicine, ; Houston, TX USA
                [690 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0420 5521, GRID grid.413890.7, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [691 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [692 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0702 3000, GRID grid.248762.d, Canada’s Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, , BC Cancer Agency, ; Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
                [693 ]Indivumed, Hamburg, Germany
                [694 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0647 8419, GRID grid.414067.0, Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, , Keimyung University Dong-san Medical Center, ; Daegu, South Korea
                [695 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2152 9905, GRID grid.50956.3f, Women’s Cancer Program at the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, , Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, ; Los Angeles, CA USA
                [696 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9510, GRID grid.253615.6, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Health Science, , The George Washington University, ; Washington, DC USA
                [697 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8075, GRID grid.48336.3a, Endocrine Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, , National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                [698 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0628 9810, GRID grid.410914.9, National Cancer Center, ; Gyeonggi, South Korea
                [699 ]ILSbio, LLC Biobank, Chestertown, MD USA
                [700 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8753, GRID grid.137628.9, Gynecologic Oncology, NYU Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center, , New York University, ; New York, NY USA
                [701 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, Division of Oncology, Stem Cell Biology Section, , Washington University School of Medicine, ; St Louis, MO USA
                [702 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8075, GRID grid.48336.3a, Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, , National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                [703 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0463 2320, GRID grid.64212.33, Institute for Systems Biology, ; Seattle, WA USA
                [704 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2153 6013, GRID grid.239546.f, Center for Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, , Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, ; Los Angeles, CA USA
                [705 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0392 3476, GRID grid.240344.5, Institute for Genomic Medicine, , Nationwide Children’s Hospital, ; Columbus, OH USA
                [706 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7961, GRID grid.26009.3d, Department of Surgery, , Duke University, ; Durham, NC USA
                [707 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2297 6811, GRID grid.266102.1, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Services, , University of California San Francisco, ; San Francisco, CA USA
                [708 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2160 8953, GRID grid.413103.4, Department of Neurology and Department of Neurosurgery, , Henry Ford Hospital, ; Detroit, MI USA
                [709 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9758 5690, GRID grid.5288.7, Knight Cancer Institute, , Oregon Health & Science University, ; Portland, OR USA
                [710 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 8635, GRID grid.240614.5, Department of Pathology, , Roswell Park Cancer Institute, ; Buffalo, NY USA
                [711 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, , Washington University School of Medicine, ; St Louis, MO USA
                [712 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Palliative, Rehabilitation and Integrative Medicine, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [713 ]GRID grid.430183.d, Penrose St Francis Health Services, ; Colorado Springs, CO USA
                [714 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7822, GRID grid.170205.1, The University of Chicago, ; Chicago, IL USA
                [715 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0459 167X, GRID grid.66875.3a, Department of Neurology, , Mayo Clinic, ; Rochester, MN USA
                [716 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0628 9810, GRID grid.410914.9, Center for Liver Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, , National Cancer Center, ; Gyeonggi, South Korea
                [717 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Department of Genetics and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [718 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2109 4251, GRID grid.240324.3, NYU Langone Medical Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [719 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0675 4725, GRID grid.239578.2, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, , Cleveland Clinic, ; Cleveland, OH USA
                [720 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Department of Genetics, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [721 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0444 1241, GRID grid.414316.5, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center at Christiana Care Health Systems, ; Newark, DE USA
                [722 ]Cureline, South San Francisco, CA USA
                [723 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2111 8460, GRID grid.30760.32, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, , Medical College of Wisconsin, ; Milwaukee, WI USA
                [724 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0941 6502, GRID grid.189967.8, Hematology and Medical Oncology, , Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, ; Atlanta, GA USA
                [725 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2264 7217, GRID grid.152326.1, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, , Vanderbilt University, ; Nashville, TN USA
                [726 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2285 7943, GRID grid.261331.4, Ohio State University College of Medicine and Arthur G. James Comprehensive Cancer Center, ; Columbus, OH USA
                [727 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Research Computing Center, , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [728 ]GRID grid.422639.8, Analytical Biological Services, ; Wilmington, DE USA
                [729 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0262 7331, GRID grid.410718.b, Department of Dermatology, , University Hospital Essen, Westdeutsches Tumorzentrum and German Cancer Consortium, ; Essen, Germany
                [730 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9000, GRID grid.21925.3d, University of Pittsburgh, ; Pittsburgh, PA USA
                [731 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0560 6544, GRID grid.414467.4, Murtha Cancer Center, , Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                [732 ]ISNI 000000041936754X, GRID grid.38142.3c, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, , Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                [733 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9952, GRID grid.51462.34, Department of Surgery, , Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, ; New York, NY USA
                [734 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, GRID grid.240145.6, Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, and Center for RNA Interference and Non-Coding RNA, , The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                [735 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0459 167X, GRID grid.66875.3a, Department of Urology, , Mayo Clinic, ; Rochester, MN USA
                [736 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Department of Surgery, , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [737 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0941 6502, GRID grid.189967.8, Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Hematology and Department of Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute and School of Medicine, , Emory University, ; Atlanta, GA USA
                [738 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2284 9329, GRID grid.410427.4, Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, ; Augusta, GA USA
                [739 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0459 167X, GRID grid.66875.3a, Thoracic Oncology Laboratory, , Mayo Clinic, ; Rochester, MN USA
                [740 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0392 3476, GRID grid.240344.5, Institute for Genomic Medicine, , Nationwide Children’s Hospital, ; Columbus, OH USA
                [741 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0459 167X, GRID grid.66875.3a, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, , Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Mayo Clinic, ; Rochester, MN USA
                [742 ]International Institute for Molecular Oncology, Poznań, Poland
                [743 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2205 0971, GRID grid.22254.33, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ; Poznań, Poland
                [744 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2355 7002, GRID grid.4367.6, Edison Family Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, , Washington University, ; St Louis, MO USA
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                10.1038/s41586-020-1969-6
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