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      Mental contrasting for health behaviour change: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effects and moderator variables

      1 , 1

      Health Psychology Review

      Informa UK Limited

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          Most cited references 39

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          The efficient assessment of need for cognition.

          A short form for assessing individual differences in need for cognition is described.
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            Self-regulation of goal setting: turning free fantasies about the future into binding goals.

            Fantasy realization theory states that when people contrast their fantasies about a desired future with reflections on present reality, a necessity to act is induced that leads to the activation and use of relevant expectations. Strong goal commitment arises in light of favorable expectations, and weak goal commitment arises in light of unfavorable expectations. To the contrary, when people only fantasize about a desired future or only reflect on present reality, expectancy-independent moderate goal commitment emerges. Four experiments pertaining to various life domains supported these hypotheses. Strength of goal commitment was assessed in cognitive (e.g., making plans), affective (e.g., felt attachment), and behavioral terms (e.g., effort expenditure, quality of performance). Implications for theories on goal setting and goal striving are discussed.
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              The motivating function of thinking about the future: expectations versus fantasies.

              Two forms of thinking about the future are distinguished: expectations versus fantasies. Positive expectations (judging a desired future as likely) predicted high effort and successful performance, but the reverse was true for positive fantasies (experiencing one's thoughts and mental images about a desired future positively). Participants were graduates looking for a job (Study 1), students with a crush on a peer of the opposite sex (Study 2), undergraduates anticipating an exam (Study 3), and patients undergoing hip-replacement surgery (Study 4). Effort and performance were measured weeks or months (up to 2 years) after expectations and fantasies had been assessed. Implications for the self-regulation of effort and performance are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Health Psychology Review
                Health Psychology Review
                Informa UK Limited
                1743-7199
                1743-7202
                March 29 2019
                April 03 2019
                March 29 2019
                April 03 2019
                : 13
                : 2
                : 209-225
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Enterprise Centre, University of Derby, Derby, UK
                Article
                10.1080/17437199.2019.1594332
                © 2019

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