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      Mutations in LHX3 result in a new syndrome revealed by combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

      Nature genetics

      Abnormalities, Multiple, genetics, pathology, physiopathology, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Cervical Vertebrae, abnormalities, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9, Cloning, Molecular, Consanguinity, DNA Mutational Analysis, Exons, Female, Homeodomain Proteins, chemistry, Humans, LIM-Homeodomain Proteins, Male, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Mutation, Missense, Pedigree, Physical Chromosome Mapping, Pituitary Gland, Anterior, Pituitary Hormones, Anterior, analysis, deficiency, Rotation, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Deletion, Syndrome, Transcription Factors

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          Abstract

          Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) has been linked with rare abnormalities in genes encoding transcription factors necessary for pituitary development. We have isolated LHX3, a gene involved in a new syndrome, using a candidate-gene approach developed on the basis of documented pituitary abnormalities of a recessive lethal mutation in mice generated by targeted disruption of Lhx3 (ref. 2). LHX3, encoding a member of the LIM class of homeodomain proteins, consists of at least six exons located at 9q34. We identified a homozygous LHX3 defect in patients of two unrelated consanguineous families displaying a complete deficit in all but one (adrenocorticotropin) anterior pituitary hormone and a rigid cervical spine leading to limited head rotation. Two of these patients also displayed a severe pituitary hypoplasia, whereas one patient presented secondarily with an enlarged anterior pituitary. These LHX3 mutations consist of a missense mutation (Y116C) in the LIM2 domain at a phylogenetically conserved residue and an intragenic deletion predicting a severely truncated protein lacking the entire homeodomain. These data are consistent with function of LHX3 in the proper development of all anterior pituitary cell types, except corticotropes, and extrapituitary structures.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Topographic organization of embryonic motor neurons defined by expression of LIM homeobox genes.

          Motor neurons located at different positions in the embryonic spinal cord innervate distinct targets in the periphery, establishing a topographic neural map. The topographic organization of motor projections depends on the generation of subclasses of motor neurons that select specific paths to their targets. We have cloned a family of LIM homeobox genes in chick and show here that the combinatorial expression of four of these genes, Islet-1, Islet-2, Lim-1, and Lim-3, defines subclasses of motor neurons that segregate into columns in the spinal cord and select distinct axonal pathways. These genes are expressed prior to the formation of distinct motor axon pathways and before motor columns appear. Our results suggest that LIM homeobox genes contribute to the generation of motor neuron diversity and may confer subclasses of motor neurons with the ability to select specific axon pathways, thereby initiating the topographic organization of motor projections.
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            Mutations in PROP1 cause familial combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

            Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) in man denotes impaired production of growth hormone (GH) and one or more of the other five anterior pituitary hormones. Mutations of the pituitary transcription factor gene POU1F1 (the human homologue of mouse Pit1) are responsible for deficiencies of GH, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in Snell and Jackson dwarf mice and in man, while the production of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is preserved. The Ames dwarf (df) mouse displays a similar phenotype, and appears to be epistatic to Snell and Jackson dwarfism. We have recently positionally cloned the putative Ames dwarf gene Prop1, which encodes a paired-like homeodomain protein that is expressed specifically in embryonic pituitary and is necessary for Pit1 expression. In this report, we have identified four CPHD families with homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for inactivating mutations of PROP1. These mutations in the human PROP1 gene result in a gene product with reduced DNA-binding and transcriptional activation ability in comparison to the product of the murine df mutation. In contrast to individuals with POU1F1 mutations, those with PROP1 mutations cannot produce LH and FSH at a sufficient level and do not enter puberty spontaneously. Our results identify a major cause of CPHD in humans and suggest a direct or indirect role for PROP1 in the ontogenesis of pituitary gonadotropes, as well as somatotropes, lactotropes and caudomedial thyrotropes.
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              LIM domains: multiple roles as adapters and functional modifiers in protein interactions.

              The LIM domain is a specialized double-zinc finger motif found in a variety of proteins, in association with domains of divergent functions or forming proteins composed primarily of LIM domains. LIM domains interact specifically with other LIM domains and with many different protein domains. LIM domains are thought to function as protein interaction modules, mediating specific contacts between members of functional complexes and modulating the activity of some of the constituent proteins. Nucleic acid binding by LIM domains, while suggested by structural considerations, remains an unproven possibility. LIM-domain proteins can be nuclear, cytoplasmic, or can shuttle between compartments. Several important LIM proteins are associated with the cytoskeleton, having a role in adhesion-plaque and actin-microfilament organization. Among nuclear LIM proteins, the LIM homeodomain proteins form a major subfamily with important functions in cell lineage determination and pattern formation during animal development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10835633
                10.1038/76041

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