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      The Effect of High-Speed Power Training on Physical Frailty in Older Adults: Effect of a Visual-Guided Exercise Program in South Korean Rural Areas


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          Exercise has been shown to be an effective intervention; the difficulty still lies in providing exercise programs to the older adults in rural areas. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of a 12-week exercise program provided with visual guidelines (prerecorded video) on frailty among older adults in rural areas.


          Fifty participants (71.7 ± 4.9 years) from 5 different rural areas were recruited and divided into two groups: the exercise group (EX, n = 24 (male: 8, female: 18)) and the control group (CON, n = 26 (male: 7, female: 17)). With the commencement of the exercise intervention, a prerecorded high-speed power training program for frail older adults was distributed to the EX group. A new prerecorded exercise program was delivered to the EX group every 4 weeks. Frailty status was diagnosed with Fried's criteria before and after the intervention. Muscle strength was measured in the upper and lower limb strength (hand-grip strength and leg extension and flexion), and physical function was measured using a short physical performance battery and gait speed. Fasting blood was collected before and after the intervention and analyzed for blood lipid profile.


          After 12 weeks of the intervention period, a significant difference in frailty status ( P < 0.01) and score ( P < 0.01) favoring the EX group was observed. Physical functions (gait speed ( P=0.01) and time for sit to stand ( P < 0.01)) were significantly improved in the EX group with a significant increase in knee extensor strength ( P < 0.01). A significant difference in serum high-density lipoprotein levels favoring the EX group ( P=0.03) was also observed.


          This study confirmed the positive effect of a visual-guided exercise program on older adults' residents in rural areas and provided alternative methods to effectively provide exercise program for the older adults with limited resources.

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          Most cited references28

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          Frailty in Older Adults: Evidence for a Phenotype

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            A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission.

            A short battery of physical performance tests was used to assess lower extremity function in more than 5,000 persons age 71 years and older in three communities. Balance, gait, strength, and endurance were evaluated by examining ability to stand with the feet together in the side-by-side, semi-tandem, and tandem positions, time to walk 8 feet, and time to rise from a chair and return to the seated position 5 times. A wide distribution of performance was observed for each test. Each test and a summary performance scale, created by summing categorical rankings of performance on each test, were strongly associated with self-report of disability. Both self-report items and performance tests were independent predictors of short-term mortality and nursing home admission in multivariate analyses. However, evidence is presented that the performance tests provide information not available from self-report items. Of particular importance is the finding that in those at the high end of the functional spectrum, who reported almost no disability, the performance test scores distinguished a gradient of risk for mortality and nursing home admission. Additionally, within subgroups with identical self-report profiles, there were systematic differences in physical performance related to age and sex. This study provides evidence that performance measures can validly characterize older persons across a broad spectrum of lower extremity function. Performance and self-report measures may complement each other in providing useful information about functional status.
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              Effect of structured physical activity on prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: the LIFE study randomized clinical trial.

              In older adults reduced mobility is common and is an independent risk factor for morbidity, hospitalization, disability, and mortality. Limited evidence suggests that physical activity may help prevent mobility disability; however, there are no definitive clinical trials examining whether physical activity prevents or delays mobility disability.

                Author and article information

                J Environ Public Health
                J Environ Public Health
                Journal of Environmental and Public Health
                2 June 2023
                : 2023
                : 8912846
                1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                2Institute on Aging, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea
                3Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
                4School of Medicine and Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
                5Health and Exercise Science Laboratory, Department of Physical Education, Institute of Sports Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Stevo Popovic

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Dong Hyun Yoon et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 29 September 2022
                : 20 April 2023
                : 28 April 2023
                Research Article

                Public health
                Public health


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