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      Five Strategies for Optimizing Instructional Materials: Instructor- and Learner-Managed Cognitive Load

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          Researchers of cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning have identified several strategies to optimize instructional materials. In this review article we focus on five of these strategies or solutions to problematic instructional designs in multimedia learning: (a) the multimedia principle (use visualizations and drawings to complement texts); (b) the split-attention effect or spatial contiguity principle (show texts contiguously or integrated with visualizations); (c) the redundancy effect, alike the coherence principle (remove nonessential learning information); (d) the signaling principle (cue or signal essential learning information); and (e) the transient information effect or segmenting principle (segment or control the pace of animations and videos). Usually, both cognitive theories have investigated solutions that instructors, teachers, and designers should pursue to optimize students’ learning. Here, in a novel approach, we show that these strategies can also be used by learners who want to self-manage their cognitive load and learning process. We provide several examples of both instructor- and learner-managed solutions aligned with these strategies. When assessing which agent, either the instructor or the learner, was most effective, we observed mixed results in the literature. However, the expertise reversal effect may help predict the direction of these effects: novice students may learn better under instructor-managed conditions, whereas more expert students may learn more under learner-managed conditions.

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          COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses

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            Working Memory: Theories, Models, and Controversies

             Alan Baddeley (2012)
            I present an account of the origins and development of the multicomponent approach to working memory, making a distinction between the overall theoretical framework, which has remained relatively stable, and the attempts to build more specific models within this framework. I follow this with a brief discussion of alternative models and their relationship to the framework. I conclude with speculations on further developments and a comment on the value of attempting to apply models and theories beyond the laboratory studies on which they are typically based.
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              Cognitive Load Theory and the Format of Instruction


                Author and article information

                Educ Psychol Rev
                Educ Psychol Rev
                Educational Psychology Review
                Springer US (New York )
                9 March 2021
                : 1-29
                [1 ]GRID grid.443909.3, ISNI 0000 0004 0385 4466, Center for Advanced Research in Education, Institute of Education, , Universidad de Chile, ; Santiago, Chile
                [2 ]GRID grid.6906.9, ISNI 0000000092621349, Department of Psychology, Education, and Child Studies, , Erasmus University Rotterdam, ; Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [3 ]GRID grid.213876.9, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 738X, Department of Educational Psychology, , University of Georgia, ; Athens, GA USA
                [4 ]GRID grid.1007.6, ISNI 0000 0004 0486 528X, School of Education/Early Start, , University of Wollongong, ; Wollongong, Australia
                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Funded by: Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo
                Award ID: ANID/PIA/Basal Funds for Centers of Excellence FB0003
                Award ID: Fondecyt 11180255
                Award Recipient :
                Review Article


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