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      Differences in physical activity according to mMRC grade in patients with COPD

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          Abstract

          Background

          Physical activity (PA) is impaired from the early stages of COPD, is associated with a worsening of disease prognosis, and causes COPD patients to restrict their daily activities in order to avoid breathlessness. The development of a simple tool to estimate physical activity level (PAL) could be useful for the management of COPD.

          Objectives

          We investigated the differences in PA according to the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) grade in patients with COPD.

          Methods

          A cross-sectional study was performed on stable outpatients with COPD. PA was measured for 2 weeks using a triaxial accelerometer, and dyspnea grade was evaluated in all patients using the mMRC scale.

          Results

          Ninety-eight patients were recruited. Significant differences in PA duration were observed at all intensities according to the mMRC grade. Despite treatment with controller medications, 59.2% of COPD patients had low PAL, which was <1.5 metabolic equivalents multiplied by hour per day. COPD patients with an mMRC grade ≥2, which was the most balanced cutoff point in the receiver operating characteristic curve, showed a higher reduction rate of PAL (80.0% at mMRC grade 2, 71.4% at mMRC grade 3, and 100% at mMRC grade 4).

          Conclusion

          PA differed according to the mMRC grade, and mMRC grade ≥2 could predict a low PAL. Therefore, assessment of breathlessness by the mMRC questionnaire would be useful to stratify the risks of reduced PA in COPD.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Characteristics of physical activities in daily life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Quantification of physical activities in daily life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has increasing clinical interest. However, detailed comparison with healthy subjects is not available. Furthermore, it is unknown whether time spent actively during daily life is related to lung function, muscle force, or maximal and functional exercise capacity. We assessed physical activities and movement intensity with the DynaPort activity monitor in 50 patients (age 64 +/- 7 years; FEV1 43 +/- 18% predicted) and 25 healthy elderly individuals (age 66 +/- 5 years). Patients showed lower walking time (44 +/- 26 vs. 81 +/- 26 minutes/day), standing time (191 +/- 99 vs. 295 +/- 109 minutes/day), and movement intensity during walking (1.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.5 m/second2; p < 0.0001 for all), as well as higher sitting time (374 +/- 139 vs. 306 +/- 108 minutes/day; p = 0.04) and lying time (87 +/- 97 vs. 29 +/- 33 minutes/day; p = 0.004). Walking time was highly correlated with the 6-minute walking test (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001) and more modestly to maximal exercise capacity, lung function, and muscle force (0.28 < r < 0.64, p < 0.05). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are markedly inactive in daily life. Functional exercise capacity is the strongest correlate of physical activities in daily life.
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            A long-term evaluation of once-daily inhaled tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

            Currently available inhaled bronchodilators used as therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) necessitate multiple daily dosing. The present study evaluates the long-term safety and efficacy of tiotropium, a new once-daily anticholinergic in COPD. Patients with stable COPD (age 65.2+/-8.7 yrs (mean+/-SD), n=921) were enrolled in two identical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 1-yr studies. Patients inhaled tiotropium 18 microg or placebo (mean screening forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 1.01 versus 0.99 L, 39.1 and 38.1% of the predicted value) once daily as a dry powder. The primary spirometric outcome was trough FEV1 (i.e. FEV1 prior to dosing). Changes in dyspnoea were measured using the Transition Dyspnea Index, and health status with the disease-specific St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the generic Short Form 36. Medication use and adverse events were recorded. Tiotropium provided significantly superior bronchodilation relative to placebo for trough FEV1 response (approximately 12% over baseline) (p<0.01) and mean response during the 3 h following dosing (approximately 22% over baseline) (p<0.001) over the 12-month period. Tiotropium recipients showed less dyspnoea (p<0.001), superior health status scores, and fewer COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations (p<0.05). Adverse events were comparable with placebo, except for dry mouth incidence (tiotropium 16.0% versus placebo 2.7%, p<0.05). Tiotropium is an effective, once-daily bronchodilator that reduces dyspnoea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation frequency and improves health status. This suggests that tiotropium will make an important contribution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy.
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              Physical activity in patients with COPD.

              The present study aimed to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to: 1) identify the disease stage at which physical activity becomes limited; 2) investigate the relationship of clinical characteristics with physical activity; 3) evaluate the predictive power of clinical characteristics identifying very inactive patients; and 4) analyse the reliability of physical activity measurements. In total, 163 patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage I-IV; BODE (body mass index, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity) index score 0-10) and 29 patients with chronic bronchitis (normal spirometry; former GOLD stage 0) wore activity monitors that recorded steps per day, minutes of at least moderate activity, and physical activity levels for 5 days (3 weekdays plus Saturday and Sunday). Compared with patients with chronic bronchitis, steps per day, minutes of at least moderate activity and physical activity levels were reduced from GOLD stage II/BODE score 1, GOLD stage III/BODE score 3/4 and from GOLD stage III/BODE score 1, respectively. Reliability of physical activity measurements improved with the number of measured days and with higher GOLD stages. Moderate relationships were observed between clinical characteristics and physical activity. GOLD stages III and IV best predicted very inactive patients. Physical activity is reduced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II/ body mass index, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity score 1. Clinical characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease only incompletely reflect their physical activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2016
                13 September 2016
                : 11
                : 2203-2208
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Third Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, School of Medicine, Wakayama
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Wakayama Hospital, Wakayama
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine and Infectious Disease, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yoshiaki Minakata, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Wakayama Hospital, 1138 Wada, Mihama-cho, Hidaka-gun, Wakayama 644-0044, Japan, Tel +81 738 22 3256, Fax +81 738 22 2126, Email minakaty@ 123456wakayama2.hosp.go.jp
                Article
                copd-11-2203
                10.2147/COPD.S109694
                5028078
                © 2016 Hayata et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                accelerometer, questionnaire, dyspnea, mets

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