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      Oxidation of High Density Lipoproteins : I. FORMATION OF METHIONINE SULFOXIDE IN APOLIPOPROTEINS AI AND AII IS AN EARLY EVENT THAT ACCOMPANIES LIPID PEROXIDATION AND CAN BE ENHANCED BY α-TOCOPHEROL

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          Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity.

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            High-density lipoprotein inhibits the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein.

            Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), generated as a result of incubation of LDL with specific cells (e.g., endothelial cells, EC) or redox metals like copper, has been suggested to be an atherogenic form of LDL. Epidemiological evidence suggests that higher concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are protective against the disease. The effect of HDL on the generation of the oxidatively modified LDL is described in the current study. Incubation of HDL with endothelial cells, or with copper, produced much lower amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive products (TBARS) as compared to incubations that contained LDL at equal protein concentrations. Such incubations also did not result in an enhanced degradation of the incubated HDL by macrophages in contrast to similarly incubated LDL. On the other hand, inclusion of HDL in the incubations that contained labeled LDL had a profound inhibitory effect on the subsequent degradation of the incubated LDL by the macrophages while having no effect on the generation of TBARS or the formation of conjugated dienes. This inhibition was not due to the modification of HDL as suggested by the following findings. (A) There was no enhanced macrophage degradation of the HDL incubated with EC or copper alone, together with LDL, despite an increased generation of TBARS. (B) HDL with the lysine groups blocked (acetyl HDL, malondialdehyde (MDA) HDL) was still able to prevent the modification of LDL and (C) acetyl HDL and MDA-HDL competed poorly for the degradation of oxidatively modified LDL. It is suggested that HDL may play a protective role in atherogenesis by preventing the generation of an oxidatively modified LDL. The mechanism of action of HDL may involve exchange of lipid peroxidation products between the lipoproteins.
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              High density lipoprotein is the major carrier of lipid hydroperoxides in human blood plasma from fasting donors.

              Analysis of untreated fresh blood plasma from healthy, fasting donors revealed that high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles carry most (approximately 85%) of the detectable oxidized core lipoprotein lipids. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) lipids are relatively peroxide-free. In vitro the mild oxidation of gel-filtered plasma from fasting donors with a low, steady flux of aqueous peroxyl radicals initially caused preferential oxidation of HDL rather than LDL lipids until most ubiquinol-10 present in LDL was consumed. Thereafter, LDL core lipids were oxidized more rapidly. Isolated lipoproteins behaved similarly. Preferential accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides in HDL reflects the lack of antioxidants in most HDL particles compared to LDL, which contained 8-12 alpha-tocopherol and 0.5-1.0 ubiquinol-10 molecules per particle. Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CEOOHs) in HDL and LDL were stable when added to fresh plasma at 37 degrees C for up to 20 hr. Transfer of CEOOHs from HDL to LDL was too slow to have influenced the in vitro plasma oxidation data. Incubation of mildly oxidized LDL and HDL with cultured hepatocytes afforded a linear removal of CEOOHs from LDL (40% loss over 1 hr), whereas a fast-then-slow biphasic removal was observed for HDL. Our data show that HDL is the principal vehicle for circulating plasma lipid hydroperoxides and suggest that HDL lipids may be more rapidly oxidized than those in LDL in vivo. The rapid hepatic clearance of CEOOHs in HDL could imply a possible beneficial role of HDL by attenuating the build-up of oxidized lipids in LDL.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biological Chemistry
                J. Biol. Chem.
                American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
                0021-9258
                1083-351X
                March 13 1998
                March 13 1998
                : 273
                : 11
                : 6080-6087
                Article
                10.1074/jbc.273.11.6080
                © 1998

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