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      Riqueza, distribución y conservación de los topos y las musarañas (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla) de México Translated title: Species richness, distribution, and conservation of moles and shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla) from Mexico

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          Abstract

          <sec><title>INTRODUCCIÓN:</title><p> Los topos (Talpidae) y las musarañas (Soricidae) son los únicos representantes del orden Eulipotyphla en México, conformando cerca del 7 % de la mastofauna del país. A pesar de su riqueza, algunos aspectos básicos como la taxonomía alfa y el conocimiento de su distribución geográfica permanecen incompletos. La falta de esta información implica que el estado de conservación de los eulipotiflos también permanezca sin ser evaluado, lo que implica un serio impedimento para el diseño de estrategias de manejo para un grupo que tiende a ser especialmente susceptible al cambio climático y a los impactos en la transformación del hábitat. Por tal motivo, con base en la información de colecciones de historia natural y datos ambientales espaciales se realizó una evaluación del estado actual del conocimiento y las posibles amenazas a la supervivencia de los topos y musarañas mexicanos.</p></sec><sec><title>METODOLOGÍA:</title><p> Revisamos la información disponible en las colecciones biológicas, bases de datos y registros de la literatura. Evaluamos el sesgo geográfico de colecta y estimamos la distribución actual de casi todas las especies de topos y musarañas registrados en México mediante el modelado de sus nichos ecológicos, reteniendo áreas con hábitat natural remanente. Por último, calculamos la extensión de la distribución de cada especie dentro de las áreas Protegidas y dentro de los ecosistemas más amenazados en México con la finalidad de identificar a los taxones más vulnerables.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTADOS:</title><p> La diversidad mexicana de eulipotiflos está representada por tres especies de topos y 36 de musarañas. 26 de estas especies (67 %) son endémicas del país y 27 (69 %) se encuentran bajo alguna categoría de riesgo de acuerdo al gobierno mexicano o por instancias internacionales. Once taxones se conocen por no más de 10 ejemplares o por muy pocas localidades en el país. Una musaraña en particular (<italic>Sorex stizodon</italic>) no ha sido registrada desde hace más de un siglo. Debido al escaso número de localidades (< 5), no se estimó la distribución actual de 12 especies. La región que podría albergar a la mayor riqueza taxonómica se encuentra en las zonas altas del centro y sur del país. Las especies con el mayor porcentaje de hábitat transformado son el topo <italic>Scalopus latimanus</italic> y las musarañas <italic>Cryptotis merriami, C. mexicanus, C. obscurus y Sorex ornatus</italic>. Con base en la distribución actual, el número de registros, la protección actual dentro de AP y/o las amenazas potenciales, las musarañas <italic>Cryptotis griseoventris</italic> y la recientemente descrita <italic>C. lacandonensis</italic> deberían estar protegidas por el gobierno mexicano.</p></sec><sec><title>DISCUSIÓN Y CONCLUSIONES:</title><p> Este trabajo proporciona la primera documentación detallada de la información disponible sobre la taxonomía, nomenclatura, distribución y amenazas de los topos y musarañas en México. La información obtenida en colecciones de historia natural corrobora el escaso y sesgado conocimiento sobre la distribución actual de los eulipotiflos (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B43">Ramírez-Pulido <italic>et al.</italic> 2005</xref>; <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B3">Carraway 2007</xref>). Nuestro análisis espacial proporciona evidencia de que algunas especies podrían estar más amenazadas de lo que actualmente se reconoce por criterios globales (UICN) y por el gobierno mexicano. El bajo número de ejemplares (< 10) de algunos eulipotiflos podría ser consecuencia de la falta de muestreo. Conforme se incremente el número de localidades, será posible validar y robustecer los resultados de modelado de nicho ecológico para especies con tamaños de muestra reducidos. Nuestros modelos de nicho convertidos a distribución actual deberían ser utilizados para dirigir esfuerzos de estudios de campo y colecta científica, con el fin de incrementar la información sobre el estado actual de las poblaciones de topos y musarañas.</p></sec>

          Translated abstract

          <sec><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p> Moles (Talpidae) and shrews (Soricidae) are the only representatives of the order Eulipotyphla in Mexico and they account for 7 % of mammals in the country. Despite their richness, even basic aspects such as their species-level taxonomic knowledge and geographical distribution are still uncertain. The scarcity of such information implies that the biology and conservation status of eulipotyphlans are also unclear or unevaluated, which involves a serious impediment to the design of management strategies for a group that tends to be susceptible to climate change and impacts of anthropogenic habitat transformation. Here, we performed a comprehensive assessment of the current state of knowledge and threats to the survival of Mexican moles and shrews using information from natural history collections and spatial environmental data.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS:</title><p> We reviewed the available information in biological collections, databases, and literature records of Mexican eulipotyphlans, and evaluated the bias road in the collection of specimens. The current distribution was estimated for nearly all moles and shrews recorded in Mexico, using ecological niche modeling and retaining the remnant vegetation areas. Finally, we calculated the extent of distribution for each species within protected areas and within the most threatened ecosystems in Mexico to identify the most vulnerable taxa.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS:</title><p> The eulipotyphlan diversity of Mexico is represented by three species of moles and 36 of shrews. Of all these, 26 species (67 %) are endemic to the country and 27 (69 %) are listed in a risk category by Mexican government or global assessments. Eleven taxa are known only from no more ten specimens or from very few collecting sites. The shrew <italic>Sorex stizodon</italic> has not been recorded for more than a century. Current distributions of twelve species were not estimated because they are represented by just a few locality records (< 5). The region that could contain most taxonomic richness is the highlands of central and southern Mexico. The species with the highest percentage of transformed habitat are the mole <italic>Scalopus latimanus</italic> and the <italic>shrews Cryptotis merriami, C. mexicanus, C. obscurus,</italic> and <italic>Sorex ornatus.</italic> Based on the current distribution, the number of records, the current protection within AP and /or potential threats, <italic>Cryptotis griseoventris</italic> and the recently described <italic>C. lacandonensis</italic> should be protected by the Mexican government.</p></sec><sec><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p> This paper provides the first detailed documentation of available information on the taxonomy, nomenclature, current distribution, and threats of moles and shrews in Mexico. Information from natural history collections corroborates the sparse and biased knowledge about the distribution of eulipotyphlans <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B43">(Ramí rez-Pulido et al. 2005</xref>; <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B3">Carraway 2007</xref>). Our spatial analyses provide evidence that several species may be more endangered than suggested by global approaches (IUCN) and Mexican government legislation. Several species of moles and shrews may be represented sparsely in collections because of insufficient collecting. Our niche models projected onto a map to identify the distribution should be used in directing field survey efforts and scientific collecting in order to increase the information regarding the current population status of moles and shrews.</p></sec>

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          Most cited references 90

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          New developments in museum-based informatics and applications in biodiversity analysis.

          Information from natural history collections (NHCs) about the diversity, taxonomy and historical distributions of species worldwide is becoming increasingly available over the Internet. In light of this relatively new and rapidly increasing resource, we critically review its utility and limitations for addressing a diverse array of applications. When integrated with spatial environmental data, NHC data can be used to study a broad range of topics, from aspects of ecological and evolutionary theory, to applications in conservation, agriculture and human health. There are challenges inherent to using NHC data, such as taxonomic inaccuracies and biases in the spatial coverage of data, which require consideration. Promising research frontiers include the integration of NHC data with information from comparative genomics and phylogenetics, and stronger connections between the environmental analysis of NHC data and experimental and field-based tests of hypotheses.
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            Ecological niche modeling in Maxent: the importance of model complexity and the performance of model selection criteria.

            Maxent, one of the most commonly used methods for inferring species distributions and environmental tolerances from occurrence data, allows users to fit models of arbitrary complexity. Model complexity is typically constrained via a process known as L1 regularization, but at present little guidance is available for setting the appropriate level of regularization, and the effects of inappropriately complex or simple models are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the use of information criterion approaches to setting regularization in Maxent, and we compare models selected using information criteria to models selected using other criteria that are common in the literature. We evaluate model performance using occurrence data generated from a known "true" initial Maxent model, using several different metrics for model quality and transferability. We demonstrate that models that are inappropriately complex or inappropriately simple show reduced ability to infer habitat quality, reduced ability to infer the relative importance of variables in constraining species' distributions, and reduced transferability to other time periods. We also demonstrate that information criteria may offer significant advantages over the methods commonly used in the literature.
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              Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010. Protección ambiental-Especies nativas de México de flora y fauna silvestres-Categorías de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio-lista de especificaciones en riesgo

              (2010)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                therya
                Therya
                Therya
                Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (La Paz )
                2007-3364
                April 2015
                : 6
                : 1
                : 43-68
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Mexico
                [2 ] Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Mexico
                Article
                S2007-33642015000100043
                10.12933/therya-15-211
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                Biodiversity Conservation
                Biology
                Veterinary Sciences
                Zoology

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