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      Gremlin 1 Identifies a Skeletal Stem Cell with Bone, Cartilage, and Reticular Stromal Potential

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      Cell
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          The stem cells that maintain and repair the postnatal skeleton remain undefined. One model suggests that perisinusoidal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, marrow stromal cells, and adipocytes, although the existence of these cells has not been proven through fate-mapping experiments. We demonstrate here that expression of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist gremlin 1 defines a population of osteochondroreticular (OCR) stem cells in the bone marrow. OCR stem cells self-renew and generate osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and reticular marrow stromal cells, but not adipocytes. OCR stem cells are concentrated within the metaphysis of long bones not in the perisinusoidal space and are needed for bone development, bone remodeling, and fracture repair. Grem1 expression also identifies intestinal reticular stem cells (iRSCs) that are cells of origin for the periepithelial intestinal mesenchymal sheath. Grem1 expression identifies distinct connective tissue stem cells in both the bone (OCR stem cells) and the intestine (iRSCs).

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Cell
          Cell
          Elsevier BV
          00928674
          January 2015
          January 2015
          : 160
          : 1-2
          : 269-284
          Article
          10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.042
          25594183
          e88a8b6d-dc19-4802-9f43-9c501fcae7b5
          © 2015

          https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

          https://www.elsevier.com/open-access/userlicense/1.0/

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