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Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) genotypes, specific for human consumption, with different tegument colours Translated title: Composição química e atividade de lipoxigenase em genótipos de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill.), específicos para alimentação humana, com diferentes colorações de tegumento

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      Abstract

      Abstract Recently, in Brazil, coloured-tegument soybean cultivars have been developed, such as those with brown and black teguments. Soybeans with black teguments have been widely used for decades due to their health benefits and their use in oriental folk medicine as a result of the presence of phytochemicals. They have been recognized as health-promoting functional food ingredients due to their antioxidant activity, and are also known to have anti-cancer, hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory effects and have been used in the treatment of various circulatory disorders. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition, fatty acid levels and lipoxygenase activity of soybean lineages with different tegument colours intended for human consumption. The lineage MGBR10-16601 which has a yellow tegument, presented the highest protein and lowest fat contents, with values of 37.6 g 100 g-1 and 18.3 g 100 g-1, respectively. The lineage MGBR10-16201, which also has a yellow tegument, was identified as free of lipoxygenase isoenzymes. The unsaturated fatty acid levels ranged from 18.48 to 31.37 mg g-1 and from 47.36 to 58.31 mg g-1 for oleic and linoleic acids, respectively. The lineage BRN07-50543, which has a black tegument, presented high total isoflavone levels (546 mg 100 g-1), with an oleic acid level above and linoleic acid level below the standards established by the Codex Alimentarius for soybean oil, with values of 31.37 mg g-1 and 47.36 mg g-1, respectively. The cultivar BRSMG 790A, which has a yellow tegument, presented the lowest isoflavone level (171.4 mg 100 g-1). All the genetic materials examined presented crude protein, fat, dietary fibre and ash levels within the commercial parameters established for soybeans.

      Translated abstract

      Resumo Recentemente, no Brasil, cultivares de tegumento colorido estão sendo desenvolvidas, como as de tegumentos marrom e preto. A soja com tegumento preto tem sido amplamente utilizada há décadas, devido aos seus benefícios para a saúde e ao uso na medicina popular oriental em razão da presença de fitoquímicos. Estes foram reconhecidos como ingredientes alimentares funcionais promotores da saúde, devido à sua atividade antioxidante, sendo também, conhecidos por terem efeitos anticancerígenos, hipoglicêmicos e anti-inflamatórios, e ainda têm sido usados no tratamento de vários distúrbios circulatórios. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a composição centesimal, os níveis de ácidos graxos e a atividade de lipoxigenase de linhagens de soja específicas para a alimentação humana, com diferentes colorações de tegumento. A linhagem MGBR10-16601, de tegumento amarelo, apresentou o teor mais elevado de proteína (37,6 g 100 g-1) e menor teor de gorduras (18,3 g 100 g-1). A linhagem MGBR10-1620, de tegumento amarelo, foi identificada como livre das isoenzimas de lipoxigenase. Os teores de ácidos graxos insaturados variaram de 18,48 a 31,37 mg g-1 para o ácido oleico e de 47,36 a 58,31 mg g-1 para o ácido linoleico. A linhagem de tegumento preto, BRN07-50543, apresentou teores de ácidos oleico (31,37 mg g-1) e linoleico (47,36 mg g-1) inferiores aos padrões definidos pelo Codex Alimentarius para o óleo de soja, e elevado teor de isoflavonas totais (546 mg 100 g-1). A cultivar BRSMG 790A, de tegumento amarelo, apresentou o menor nível de isoflavonas (171,4 mg 100 g-1). Todos os materiais genéticos avaliados estão dentro dos parâmetros de soja comercial para os níveis de proteína bruta, gorduras, fibras alimentares e cinzas.

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      Sisvar: a Guide for its Bootstrap procedures in multiple comparisons

      Sisvar is a statistical analysis system with a large usage by the scientific community to produce statistical analyses and to produce scientific results and conclusions. The large use of the statistical procedures of Sisvar by the scientific community is due to it being accurate, precise, simple and robust. With many options of analysis, Sisvar has a not so largely used analysis that is the multiple comparison procedures using bootstrap approaches. This paper aims to review this subject and to show some advantages of using Sisvar to perform such analysis to compare treatments means. Tests like Dunnett, Tukey, Student-Newman-Keuls and Scott-Knott are performed alternatively by bootstrap methods and show greater power and better controls of experimentwise type I error rates under non-normal, asymmetric, platykurtic or leptokurtic distributions.
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        IV Diretriz Brasileira sobre Dislipidemias e Prevenção da Aterosclerose: Departamento de Aterosclerose da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia

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          Soy isoflavones for osteoporosis: an evidence-based approach.

          Effects of soy isoflavones on osteoporosis remain unclear. This review aimed to clarify the effect of soy isoflavones on bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover markers in menopausal women. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched in July 2011 for relevant meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of soy isoflavones on BMD and bone turnover markers. Three meta-analyses evaluated the effects of soy isoflavones on lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD. Soy isoflavones significantly improved lumbar spine BMD in a moderate manner, but did not affect total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD in menopausal women. Ingestion of soy isoflavones for six months appeared to be enough to exert a beneficial effect on lumbar spine BMD. Two meta-analyses evaluated the effects of soy isoflavones on a bone resorption marker (urine deoxypyridinoline) and two formation markers (serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin). Soy isoflavones significantly decreased urine deoxypyridinoline in a moderate manner, but did not affect serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in menopausal women. Soy isoflavones may prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis and improve bone strength thus decreasing risk of fracture in menopausal women by increasing lumbar spine BMD and decreasing bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline. Further studies are needed to address factors affecting the magnitude of the beneficial effects of soy isoflavones and to assess the possible interactions between soy isoflavones and anti-osteoporosis drugs, and to verify effects on BMD of other skeletal sites and other bone turnover markers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Lavras Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Lavras orgdiv1Departamento de Química Brazil
            Londrina orgnameEmpresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária Brazil
            Uberaba MG orgnameEmpresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais orgdiv1Setor de Pesquisa em Melhoramento Genético da Soja para Alimentação Humana Brasil
            Uberaba MG orgnameInstituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Triangulo Mineiro orgdiv1Laboratório de Análise de Alimentos Brasil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
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            Journal
            bjft
            Brazilian Journal of Food Technology
            Braz. J. Food Technol.
            Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos - ITAL (Campinas, SP, Brazil )
            1981-6723
            April 2019
            : 22
            : 0
            S1981-67232019000100414
            10.1590/1981-6723.00318

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 41, Pages: 0
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            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
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