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      Body Composition Abnormalities in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome and Long-Term Effects of Growth Hormone Therapy

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          Abstract

          Obesity and hypothalamic GH deficiency contribute in different ways to the disturbances of body composition in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS); while both increase the fat compartment, the reduction of lean tissue mass has been attributed mainly to GH deficiency. Therefore, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was prospectively studied in 12 overweight children with PWS and weight for height (WfH) SDS >0 before and during 3.5 years of treatment with hGH (0.037 mg/kg/day) on average. In the long term, there is a net reduction of body fat from 3.1 to 1.2 SD, with a minimum at the end of the second year of treatment. WfH SDS correctly reflects body fat mass and its changes. The initial deficit of lean mass (–1.6 SD) is counteracted by GH only during the first year of therapy (increase to –1.25 SD). But in the long term, GH therapy does not further compensate for this deficit, when lean mass is corrected for its growth-related increase. In conclusion, exogenous GH changes the phenotype of children with PWS: fat mass becomes normal, but, at least in the setting studied, GH is not sufficient to normalize lean tissue mass.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Sustained benefit after 2 years of growth hormone on body composition, fat utilization, physical strength and agility, and growth in Prader-Willi syndrome.

          Obesity and hypotonia in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are accompanied by abnormal body composition resembling a growth hormone (GH)-deficient state. Hypothalamic dysfunction in PWS includes decreased GH secretion, suggesting a possible therapeutic role for GH treatment. Although recent studies have demonstrated short-term benefits of treatment with GH, a critical question is whether beneficial changes persist or wane with prolonged therapy. Effects of 24 months of GH treatment (1 mg/m(2)/d) on growth, body composition, strength and agility, pulmonary function, resting energy expenditure, and fat utilization were assessed in 35 children with PWS. Percent body fat, lean muscle mass, and bone mineral density were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine resting energy expenditure and to calculate the respiratory quotient. Compared with baseline evaluations, increased height velocity (SD score -1.1 +/- 2.5 to 2.2 +/- 2.3; P <. 001), reduced percent body fat (46.4% +/- 8.4% to 40.3% +/- 10.0%, P <.001), and improved respiratory muscle function and physical strength and agility (sit-ups, weight-lifts, running speed, and broad jump; P <.01) were observed after 24 months of GH treatment. A decline in respiratory quotient (0.81 +/- 0.07 to 0.75 +/- 0.06; P <. 01) and a trend toward increased resting energy expenditure were also observed. Changes in response to GH occurred predominantly during the initial 12 months of GH therapy. Children with PWS had sustained increases in lean body mass, decreases in percent body fat, improvements in physical strength and agility, and increased fat oxidation after 24 months of GH therapy. However, between 12 and 24 months, the growth rate slowed. Consequently, encouraging initial results require even more prolonged study to draw conclusions regarding the long-term value of GH therapy in changing body composition in children with PWS.
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            Growth Hormone Normalises Height, Prediction of Final Height and Hand Length in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome after 4 Years of Therapy

            Background: Based on the reported favourable effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on growth and body composition in Prader-Labhart-Willi syndrome, we studied age dependency and the long-term effects on growth dynamics to elucidate the assumed hypothalamic GH deficiency. Methods: We examined 23 children treated with hGH (24 U/m 2 /week) during a median of 4 (range 1.5–5.5) years; group 1: 10 young underweight (age 0.3–4.1 years), group 2: 8 prepubertal overweight (age 3.7–9.5 years) and group 3: 5 pubertal overweight children (age 9.0–14.6 years). Results: After 4 years of therapy, height gain amounted to 1.8 SD; height (0.0 SD) and hand length (–0.2 SD) were normalised in the 2 prepubertal groups; in children above 6 years, height prediction approached parental target height. Weight for height rose in group 1 (to 0.64 SD) and decreased in group 2 (to 0.71 SD) to normal levels. Bone maturation of the pubertal children was too advanced to show a clear growth response to GH (height gain 0.42 SD). Even in this group, weight for height was reduced, but remained supernormal. Conclusion: Under exogenous GH, growth and body proportions are normalised in prepubertal children. With early institution of treatment, final height prediction reaches the parental target height range after 3 years. Such a growth-promoting effect of exogenous GH has so far only been described in children with GH deficiency.
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              Growth Hormone Treatment of Abdominally Obese Men Reduces Abdominal Fat Mass, Improves Glucose and Lipoprotein Metabolism, and Reduces Diastolic Blood Pressure

               G Johannsson (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2000
                2000
                12 October 2000
                : 53
                : 4
                : 200-206
                Affiliations
                aFoundation Growth Puberty Adolescence, Zurich, Switzerland; bDepartment of Paediatrics, University Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Departments of cNuclear Medicine and dBiostatistics, University of Zurich, Switzerland; eBaylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA
                Article
                23567 Horm Res 2000;53:200–206
                10.1159/000023567
                11044804
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 35, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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