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      A novel and compact review on the role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

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          Abstract

          In recent years, the study of oxidative stress (OS) has become increasingly popular. In particular, the role of OS on female fertility is very important and has been focused on closely. The occurrence of OS is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are a double-edged sword; they not only play an important role as secondary messengers in many intracellular signaling cascades, but they also exert indispensable effects on pathological processes involving the female genital tract. ROS and antioxidants join in the regulation of reproductive processes in both animals and humans. Imbalances between pro-oxidants and antioxidants could lead to a number of female reproductive diseases. This review focuses on the mechanism of OS and a series of female reproductive processes, explaining the role of OS in female reproduction and female reproductive diseases caused by OS, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, preeclampsia and so on. Many signaling pathways involved in female reproduction, including the Keap1-Nrf2, NF-κB, FOXO and MAPK pathways, which are affected by OS, are described, providing new ideas for the mechanism of reproductive diseases.

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          The effects of oxidative stress on female reproduction: a review

          Oxidative stress (OS), a state characterized by an imbalance between pro-oxidant molecules including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant defenses, has been identified to play a key role in the pathogenesis of subfertility in both males and females. The adverse effects of OS on sperm quality and functions have been well documented. In females, on the other hand, the impact of OS on oocytes and reproductive functions remains unclear. This imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants can lead to a number of reproductive diseases such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and unexplained infertility. Pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortion, recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia, can also develop in response to OS. Studies have shown that extremes of body weight and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and recreational drug use can promote excess free radical production, which could affect fertility. Exposures to environmental pollutants are of increasing concern, as they too have been found to trigger oxidative states, possibly contributing to female infertility. This article will review the currently available literature on the roles of reactive species and OS in both normal and abnormal reproductive physiological processes. Antioxidant supplementation may be effective in controlling the production of ROS and continues to be explored as a potential strategy to overcome reproductive disorders associated with infertility. However, investigations conducted to date have been through animal or in vitro studies, which have produced largely conflicting results. The impact of OS on assisted reproductive techniques (ART) will be addressed, in addition to the possible benefits of antioxidant supplementation of ART culture media to increase the likelihood for ART success. Future randomized controlled clinical trials on humans are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms through which OS affects female reproductive abilities, and will facilitate further explorations of the possible benefits of antioxidants to treat infertility.
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            Preeclampsia: an endothelial cell disorder.

            Despite intense study preeclampsia remains enigmatic and a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Most investigative efforts have focused on the hypertensive component of this disorder with reduced attention given to other equally important characteristics. Increased sensitivity to pressor agents and activation of the coagulation cascade occur early in the course of preeclampsia, often antedating clinically recognizable disease. Inasmuch as endothelial cell injury reduces the synthesis of vasorelaxing agents, increases the production of vasoconstrictors, impairs synthesis of endogenous anticoagulants, and increases procoagulant production, these cells are likely to be implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Indeed, evidence of endothelial cell injury is provided by the most characteristic morphologic lesion of preeclampsia, glomerular endotheliosis. Additional support for this hypothesis is derived from reports that indicate increased levels of circulating fibronectin (which can be released from injured endothelial cells) and increased factor VIII antigen present in the blood of preeclamptic women. More recently, direct evidence of activities that injure endothelial cells in vitro and increase the contractile sensitivity of isolated vessels has been presented. We propose that poorly perfused placental tissue releases a factor(s) into the systemic circulation that injuries endothelial cells. The changes initiated by endothelial cell injury set in motion a dysfunctional cascade of coagulation, vasoconstriction, and intravascular fluid redistribution that results in the clinical syndrome of preeclampsia.
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              The roles of cellular reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and antioxidants in pregnancy outcomes.

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products of aerobic respiration and metabolism. Mammalian cells have evolved a variety of enzymatic mechanisms to control ROS production, one of the central elements in signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Antioxidants also ensure defenses against ROS-induced damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. ROS and antioxidants have been implicated in the regulation of reproductive processes in both animal and human, such as cyclic luteal and endometrial changes, follicular development, ovulation, fertilization, embryogenesis, embryonic implantation, and placental differentiation and growth. In contrast, imbalances between ROS production and antioxidant systems induce oxidative stress that negatively impacts reproductive processes. High levels of ROS during embryonic, fetal and placental development are a feature of pregnancy. Consequently, oxidative stress has emerged as a likely promoter of several pregnancy-related disorders, such as spontaneous abortions, embryopathies, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor and low birth weight. Nutritional and environmental factors may contribute to such adverse pregnancy outcomes and increase the susceptibility of offspring to disease. This occurs, at least in part, via impairment of the antioxidant defense systems and enhancement of ROS generation which alters cellular signalling and/or damage cellular macromolecules. The links between oxidative stress, the female reproductive system and development of adverse pregnancy outcomes, constitute important issues in human and animal reproductive medicine. This review summarizes the role of ROS in female reproductive processes and the state of knowledge on the association between ROS, oxidative stress, antioxidants and pregnancy outcomes in different mammalian species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                lujiayin2013@163.com
                zxwang2007@163.com
                caojing315@126.com
                yxchen@cau.edu.cn
                ylbcdong@cau.edu.cn
                Journal
                Reprod Biol Endocrinol
                Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol
                Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E
                BioMed Central (London )
                1477-7827
                20 August 2018
                20 August 2018
                2018
                : 16
                : 80
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0004 0530 8290, GRID grid.22935.3f, Laboratory of Neurobiology, College of Animal Medicine, , China Agricultural University, ; Haidian, Beijing, 100193 People’s Republic of China
                Article
                391
                10.1186/s12958-018-0391-5
                6102891
                30126412
                e8a31b64-6cb6-4e92-adac-2e5821200ad8
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 9 May 2018
                : 23 July 2018
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 31572476,31272483, 31372332
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of Beijing
                Award ID: 6172022
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Human biology
                ros,oxidative stress,reproductive diseases,antioxidants,imbalance,female fertility,signaling pathways

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