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      Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease Using Thallium-201 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography among Patients Newly Undergoing Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis and Its Association with Mortality

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          Background: Previous data about the prevalence of coronary artery disease in dialysis patients were mainly based on history or electrocardiogram. Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of coronary artery disease using routine thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 227 patients at the start of chronic peritoneal dialysis between January 1996 and October 2003. We also analyzed its association with mortality. Results: Fifty-one patients (22.5%) were positive on thallium SPECT. There were significant differences in age, underlying diabetic nephropathy, and C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin, total cholesterol, and prealbumin levels among patients positive and negative on thallium SPECT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (≧60 years), underlying diabetic nephropathy, and CRP (≧0.5 mg/dl) were independent predictors of positive thallium SPECT, with the patients positive for all three factors having a probability for positive thallium SPECT of 43%, whereas patients negative for all three factors had a probability of only 4%. Ninety patients died, and 137 survived during the median follow-up period of 34 (range 3–99) months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that age, underlying diabetic nephropathy, serum albumin, prealbumin, and CRP levels, positive thallium SPECT, and smoking affected survival. Survival was not different according to gender, presence of hypertension, body mass index, total cholesterol, or lipoprotein(a). Cox regression analysis showed that only underlying diabetic nephropathy and age (≧60 years) were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: We found that 22.5% of the patients who started chronic peritoneal dialysis had a positive thallium SPECT. Age, underlying diabetic nephropathy, and CRP were independent predictors of a positive thallium SPECT. Underlying diabetic nephropathy and age, but not positive thallium SPECT, were independent predictors of mortality.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease.

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            Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients.

            Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death among chronic hemodialysis patients, yet the risk factors for these events have not been well established. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between several traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and the presence or history of cardiovascular events in 936 hemodialysis patients enrolled in the baseline phase of the Hemodialysis Study sponsored by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The adjusted odds ratios for each of the selected risk factors were estimated using a multivariable logistic regression model, controlling for the remaining risk factors, clinical center, and years on dialysis. Forty percent of the patients had coronary heart disease. Nineteen percent had cerebrovascular disease, and 23% had peripheral vascular disease. As expected, diabetes and smoking were strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases. Increasing age was also an important contributor, especially in the group less than 55 years and in nondiabetic patients. Black race was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases than non-blacks. Interestingly, neither serum total cholesterol nor predialysis systolic blood pressure was associated with coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral vascular disease. Further estimation of the coronary risks in our cohort using the Framingham coronary point score suggests that traditional risk factors are inadequate predictors of coronary heart disease in hemodialysis patients. Some of the traditional coronary risk factors in the general population appear to be also applicable to the hemodialysis population, while other factors did not correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in this cross-sectional study. Nontraditional risk factors, including the uremic milieu and perhaps the hemodialysis procedure itself, are likely to be contributory. Further studies are necessary to define the cardiovascular risk factors in order to devise preventive and interventional strategies for the chronic hemodialysis population.
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              Outcome and risk factors of ischemic heart disease in chronic uremia.

              To determine the prognosis and risk factors for ischemic heart disease in chronic uremia, a cohort of 432 dialysis patients were followed prospectively from start of dialysis therapy until death or renal transplantation. Baseline demographic, clinical and echocardiographic data were obtained. After the initiation of dialysis laboratory data were collected at monthly intervals, and clinical and echocardiographic data at yearly intervals. Twenty-two percent of patients (N = 95) had either a history of angina pectoris or myocardial infarction on starting dialysis therapy. Median time to onset of heart failure was 24 months in those with ischemic heart disease on initiation of dialysis, compared to 55 months in those without (P < 0.0001). This effect was independent of age, diabetes and underlying cardiomyopathy. Median survival was 44 months in those with ischemic disease compared to 56 months in those without (P = 0.0001). This adverse impact was independent of age and diabetes mellitus but, when cardiac failure was added to the Cox's model, ischemic heart disease was no longer an independent predictor of survival. De novo ischemic heart disease, not evident on starting dialysis therapy, occurred in 41 (9%) patients. When compared to patients who never developed ischemic disease (N = 296; 69%), significant and independent predictors of de novo disease were older age (P = 0.0007), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.0001), high blood pressure during follow up on dialysis (P = 0.02) and hypoalbuminemia (P = 0.03), whereas anemia was not an independent predictor. LV mass index was 174 +/- 7 g/m2 in those who developed de novo ischemic disease compared to 155 +/- 3 g/m2 (P < 0.001) in those who did not. Concentric LV hypertrophy, LV dilation and systolic dysfunction were independent risk factors for de novo ischemic heart disease. We conclude that ischemic heart disease occurs frequently in dialysis patients, that its adverse impact is mediated through the development of heart failure, and that the most important, potentially reversible risk factors are hypertension, hypoalbuminemia, and underlying cardiomyopathy.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2004
                17 September 2004
                : 24
                : 4
                : 448-452
                Departments of Internal Medicine and Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Korea
                80220 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:448–452
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 5, References: 14, Pages: 5
                Self URI (application/pdf):
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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