Experience on the rehabilitation of 62 heart-transplanted patients with a mean follow-up period of 15 months and a total survival rate of 79% is reported. From the present study we may conclude that: (a) One month after surgery, oxygen consumption of transplanted patients compared to coronary artery bypass-grafted patients was statistically lower (p < 0.025). An excess ventilation was observed in transplanted patients in relation mainly to an excessive increase in blood lactates. (b) Improvement of maximal working capacity observed immediately after grafting was still enhanced after 1 year of a comprehensive rehabilitation program (p < 0.001). This improvement was more related with an improvement of the respiratory function and of the peripheral factors than with a circulatory effect, (c) Four months after transplantation 71 % of the patients still at work 6 months before operation returned to work, (d) The quality of life, well-being and heart acceptation demonstrated an immediate increase in physical items after transplantation while psychosocial items decreased postoperatively and normalized after weeks or months.