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      Understanding the Relationship between Environmental Arsenic and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness among African-American and European-American Men in North Carolina

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          Abstract

          High-level exposure to arsenic, a known carcinogen and endocrine disruptor, is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) mortality. Whether low-level exposure is associated with PCa aggressiveness remains unknown. We examined the association between urinary arsenic and PCa aggressiveness among men in North Carolina. This cross-sectional study included 463 African-American and 491 European-American men with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma. PCa aggressiveness was defined as low aggressive (Gleason score < 7, stage = cT1–cT2, and PSA < 10 ng/mL) versus intermediate/high aggressive (all other cases). Total arsenic and arsenical species (inorganic arsenic (iAs III + iAs V), arsenobetaine, monomethyl arsenic, and dimethyl arsenic)) and specific gravity were measured in spot urine samples obtained an average of 23.7 weeks after diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the covariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCa aggressiveness in association with arsenic tertiles/quantiles overall and by race. The highest (vs. lowest) tertile of total arsenic was associated with PCa aggressiveness ORs of 1.77 (95% CI = 1.05–2.98) among European-American men, and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.57–1.56) among African-American men ( P Interaction = 0.04). In contrast, total arsenic and arsenical species were not associated with PCa aggressiveness in unstratified models. Low-level arsenic exposure may be associated with PCa aggressiveness among European-Americans, but not among African-Americans.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

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            Cancer statistics, 2020

            Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on population-based cancer occurrence. Incidence data (through 2016) were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data (through 2017) were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2020, 1,806,590 new cancer cases and 606,520 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. The cancer death rate rose until 1991, then fell continuously through 2017, resulting in an overall decline of 29% that translates into an estimated 2.9 million fewer cancer deaths than would have occurred if peak rates had persisted. This progress is driven by long-term declines in death rates for the 4 leading cancers (lung, colorectal, breast, prostate); however, over the past decade (2008-2017), reductions slowed for female breast and colorectal cancers, and halted for prostate cancer. In contrast, declines accelerated for lung cancer, from 3% annually during 2008 through 2013 to 5% during 2013 through 2017 in men and from 2% to almost 4% in women, spurring the largest ever single-year drop in overall cancer mortality of 2.2% from 2016 to 2017. Yet lung cancer still caused more deaths in 2017 than breast, prostate, colorectal, and brain cancers combined. Recent mortality declines were also dramatic for melanoma of the skin in the wake of US Food and Drug Administration approval of new therapies for metastatic disease, escalating to 7% annually during 2013 through 2017 from 1% during 2006 through 2010 in men and women aged 50 to 64 years and from 2% to 3% in those aged 20 to 49 years; annual declines of 5% to 6% in individuals aged 65 years and older are particularly striking because rates in this age group were increasing prior to 2013. It is also notable that long-term rapid increases in liver cancer mortality have attenuated in women and stabilized in men. In summary, slowing momentum for some cancers amenable to early detection is juxtaposed with notable gains for other common cancers.
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              Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

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              Update of the 2002 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement about screening for prostate cancer. The USPSTF evaluated randomized, controlled trials of the benefits of prostate cancer screening; cohort and cross-sectional studies of the psychological harms of false-positive prostate-specific antigen test results; and evidence on the natural history of prostate-specific antigen-detected prostate cancer to address previously identified gaps in the evidence from the 2002 USPSTF recommendation. Current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for prostate cancer in men younger than age 75 years (I statement). Do not screen for prostate cancer in men age 75 years or older (Grade D recommendation).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                12 November 2020
                November 2020
                : 17
                : 22
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA; tianying.wu@ 123456sdsu.edu
                [2 ]Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
                [3 ]Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; rfry@ 123456email.unc.edu
                [4 ]Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; laura_farnan@ 123456med.unc.edu
                [5 ]Department of Urology, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA; gary.smith@ 123456roswellpark.org (G.J.S.); james.mohler@ 123456roswellpark.org (J.L.M.)
                [6 ]Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA; jeannette_bensen@ 123456med.unc.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hparada@ 123456sdsu.edu ; Tel.: +1-619-594-0980
                Article
                ijerph-17-08364
                10.3390/ijerph17228364
                7697081
                33198142
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health

                prostate, cancer, environmental arsenic, inorganic arsenic

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