Myocardial infarction during pregnancy and puerperium is very rare. Increased awareness of its possible occurrence is important for diagnosis. A young woman who developed acute myocardial infarction 14 days after labor is described. She had no coronary risk factors; coronary angiography was not done, but ergometric test involving maximal stress done 22 months after confinement did not reveal signs or symptoms of disease. An additional 62 women with myocardial infarction, 51 during pregnancy and 11 in puerperium, reported in the literature were reviewed. The following points were observed: (1) Hypertension was present in 25% of cases. (2) Four out of 6 coronary angiograms performed after the infarct were normal. (3) Fifteen patients died (24% mortality). (4) Coronary atherosclerosis was the main finding in 7 out of 9 post-mortem examinations.