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      Sleep Disorders Are Underdiagnosed in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

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          Abstract

          Background: Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is a cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep disorders using polysomnography on a non-selected population of patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Methods: Overnight polysomnography was performed on 32 hemodialysis patients (24 men/8 women, 54 ± 16 years), and on 19 healthy subjects of similar age, sex and body mass index who were used as controls. Results: In hemodialysis patients, the most frequent sleep disorder was SAHS in 44% (14/32), followed by insomnia in 41% (13/32). Compared to healthy controls, patients on hemodialysis showed less slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep (23 vs. 36%, p = 0.001), less sleep efficiency (71 vs. 87%, p = 0.0079) and a higher periodic limb movement index (39.7 vs. 9.1; p = 0.003). An increase in apnea-hypopnea index (18.9 vs. 4.3; p = 0.007) and dips in the SaO<sub>2</sub> (≧4%) per hour of sleep (22.6 vs. 6.4; p = 0.021) were also significantly greater in hemodialysis patients than controls. 72% of the cases of SAHS were diagnosed solely by means of polysomnography. Conclusions: The patients on hemodialysis showed poor sleep quality with a significant increase in the apnea-hypopnea index and in the number of dips in SaO<sub>2</sub>. SAHS was underdiagnosed in a large percentage of the hemodialysis patients.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease.

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            Day-night pattern of sudden death in obstructive sleep apnea.

            The risk of sudden death from cardiac causes in the general population peaks from 6 a.m. to noon and has a nadir from midnight to 6 a.m. Obstructive sleep apnea is highly prevalent and associated with neurohormonal and electrophysiological abnormalities that may increase the risk of sudden death from cardiac causes, especially during sleep. We reviewed polysomnograms and the death certificates of 112 Minnesota residents who had undergone polysomnography and had died suddenly from cardiac causes between July 1987 and July 2003. For four intervals of the day, we compared the rates of sudden death from cardiac causes among people with obstructive sleep apnea and the following: the rates among people without obstructive sleep apnea, the rates in the general population, and the expectations according to chance. For each interval, we assessed the median apnea-hypopnea index and the relative risk of sudden death from cardiac causes. We similarly analyzed sudden death from cardiac causes during three time intervals that correlate with usual sleep-wake cycles. From midnight to 6 a.m., sudden death from cardiac causes occurred in 46 percent of people with obstructive sleep apnea, as compared with 21 percent of people without obstructive sleep apnea (P=0.01), 16 percent of the general population (P<0.001), and the 25 percent expected by chance (P<0.001). People with sudden death from cardiac causes from midnight to 6 a.m. had a significantly higher apnea-hypopnea index than those with sudden death from cardiac causes during other intervals, and the apnea-hypopnea index correlated directly with the relative risk of sudden death from cardiac causes from midnight to 6 a.m. For people with obstructive sleep apnea, the relative risk of sudden death from cardiac causes from midnight to 6 a.m. was 2.57 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.87 to 3.52). The analysis of usual sleep-wake cycles showed similar results. People with obstructive sleep apnea have a peak in sudden death from cardiac causes during the sleeping hours, which contrasts strikingly with the nadir of sudden death from cardiac causes during this period in people without obstructive sleep apnea and in the general population. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men with obstructive sleep apnea: a 7-year follow-up.

              The incidence of a cardiovascular disease (CVD) was explored in a consecutive sleep clinic cohort of 182 middle-aged men (mean age, 46.8 +/- 9.3; range, 30-69 years in 1991) with or without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). All subjects were free of hypertension or other CVD, pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, psychiatric disorder, alcohol dependency, as well as malignancy at baseline. Data were collected via the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register covering a 7-year period before December 31, 1998, as well as questionnaires. Effectiveness of OSA treatment initiated during the period as well as age, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at baseline, and smoking habits were controlled. The incidence of at least one CVD was observed in 22 of 60 (36.7%) cases with OSA (overnight oxygen desaturations of 30 or more) compared with in 8 of 122 (6.6%) subjects without OSA (p < 0.001). In a multiple logistic regression model, significant predictors of CVD incidence were OSA at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-13.6) and age (OR 23.4; 95% CI, 2.7-197.5) after adjustment for BMI, SBP, and DBP at baseline. In the OSA group, CVD incidence was observed in 21 of 37 (56.8%) incompletely treated cases compared with in 1 of 15 (6.7%) efficiently treated subjects (p < 0.001). In a multiple regression analysis, efficient treatment was associated with a significant risk reduction for CVD incidence (OR 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.7) after adjustment for age and SBP at baseline in the OSA subjects. We conclude that the risk of developing CVD is increased in middle-aged OSA subjects independently of age, BMI, SBP, DBP, and smoking. Furthermore, efficient treatment of OSA reduces the excess CVD risk and may be considered also in relatively mild OSA without regard to daytime sleepiness.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2007
                December 2006
                15 November 2006
                : 105
                : 1
                : c35-c42
                Affiliations
                aRespiratory Service and bNephrology Service, Reina Sofía University Hospital, Cordoba, Spain
                Article
                96982 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;105:c35–c42
                10.1159/000096982
                17114901
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 35, Pages: 1
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                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/96982
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