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      Assessment of the Possible Role of FOXP3 Gene (rs3761548) Polymorphism in Psoriasis Vulgaris Susceptibility and Pathogenesis: Egyptian Study

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Psoriasis is an autoimmune-related chronic inflammatory skin disorder. Psoriasis vulgaris (PV) is the most common form of psoriasis. T regulatory cells (Tregs) are typically considered inhibitors of autoimmune responses. FOXP3 is a master control transcription factor for development and function of Tregs. FOXP3 gene polymorphism changes FOXP3 protein function and quantity leading to Tregs dysfunction that subsequently may be related to PV pathogenesis.

          Objective:

          The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible role of FOXP3 gene (rs3761548) polymorphism in PV pathogenesis.

          Materials and Methods:

          One hundred sixty subjects were included in the present study (80 PV patients and 80 well-matched healthy controls). All participants were evaluated by detailed history, general examination, dermatological examination, and psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score. The detection of FOXP3 gene (rs3761548) polymorphism in patients and controls by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was done.

          Results:

          There was statistically significant increase in CC genotype and C allele in patients compared to controls, whereas there were non-significant differences in AA and AC genotypes. However, there were non-significant associations between genotype distribution and each of age, sex, family history, PASI score, hair affection, nail affection, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index.

          Conclusion:

          FOXP3 gene (rs3761548) polymorphism may increase susceptibility of PV and share in its pathogenesis as it leads to changes in FOXP3 protein function and quantity that subsequently affect T-regs functions. Further investigations for the role of other FOXP3 genes polymorphisms in psoriasis pathogenesis and their effects on the treatment response in psoriasis patients are strongly recommended.

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          Most cited references18

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          Foxp3 instability leads to the generation of pathogenic memory T cells in vivo

          Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a central role in maintaining immune homeostasis. However, little is known about the stability of Treg cells in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that a significant percentage of cells exhibited transient or unstable Foxp3 expression. These exFoxp3+ T cells express an activated-memory T cell phenotype, and produced inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, exFoxp3 cell numbers increased in inflamed tissues under autoimmune conditions. Adoptive transfer of autoreactive exFoxp3 cells led to the rapid-onset of diabetes. Finally, T cell receptor repertoire analyses suggested that exFoxp3 cells develop from both natural and adaptive Treg cells. Thus, the generation of potentially autoreactive effector T cells as a consequence of Foxp3 instability has important implications for understanding autoimmune disease pathogenesis.
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            Severe psoriasis--oral therapy with a new retinoid.

            Ro 10-9359 is a retinoic acid derivative, selected for study because of a better tolerance than retinoic acid, shown in animal experiments. Doses of 25 mg b.i.d., 25 mg t.i.d. and 50 mg b.i.d. were administered orally to 27 patients suffering from severe chronic generalized psoriasis. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by means of a new index, psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) based on severity and area of psoriatic lesions. At doses of 25 mg t.i.d. or 50 mg b.i.d. Ro 10--9359 proved to be an extremely potent antipsoriatic drug. A more than 90% reduction of psoriatic lesions could be seen in 10 patients out of 20 after 4-8 weeks of treatment. This good effect lasted about 5 weeks after treatment. Side effects were frequent, but mostly mild and completely reversible after termination of treatment.
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              Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis.

              Previous studies suggest that patients hospitalized for psoriasis have an increased frequency of a variety of cardiovascular comorbidities. Limited population-based data exist on this association, and few studies have determined which factors are independently associated with psoriasis. We sought to determine whether the prevalence of the major cardiovascular risk factors was higher in mild and severe psoriasis than in patients without psoriasis. We conducted a population-based study in the United Kingdom using the General Practice Research Database. Patients were classified as having severe psoriasis if they received a code for psoriasis as well as systemic therapy. Patients were defined as having mild psoriasis if they ever received a psoriasis code but no systemic therapy. Control subjects were selected from the same practices and start dates as psoriasis patients. Patients were classified as having risk factors if they received codes for diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, or smoking. Analyses were performed by using conditional logistic regression, and adjustments were made considering age, gender, person-years, and all cardiovascular risk factors. We identified 127,706 patients with mild psoriasis and 3854 with severe psoriasis. Respective prevalence rates of risk factors in those with severe psoriasis, mild psoriasis, and in controls were as follows: diabetes (7.1%, 4.4%, 3.3%), hypertension (20%, 14.7%, 11.9%), hyperlipidemia (6%, 4.7%, 3.3%), obesity (20.7%, 15.8%, 13.2%), and smoking (30.1%, 28%, 21.3%). Patients with mild psoriasis had a higher adjusted odds of diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.18]), hypertension (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.12-1.21), obesity (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.24-1.31), and smoking (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.29-1.34) than controls. Patients with severe psoriasis had a higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.3-2.01), obesity (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.55-2.05), and smoking (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.17-1.47) than controls. Additionally, diabetes (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22-1.58) and obesity (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.32-1.63) were more prevalent in those with severe psoriasis than with mild psoriasis. The study was cross-sectional and therefore the directionality of the associations could not be determined. Multiple cardiovascular risk factors are associated with psoriasis. Cardiovascular risk factors that are key components of the metabolic syndrome are more strongly associated with severe psoriasis than with mild psoriasis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian Dermatol Online J
                Indian Dermatol Online J
                IDOJ
                Indian Dermatology Online Journal
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                2229-5178
                2249-5673
                Jul-Aug 2019
                : 10
                : 4
                : 401-405
                Affiliations
                [1] Department of Dermatology, Andrology and STDs, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt
                [1 ] Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Mohammad A. Gaballah, Department of Dermatology, Andrology and STDs, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, El-Gomhoria St., Mansoura, Egypt. E-mail: mohali212@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                IDOJ-10-401
                10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_372_18
                6615386
                e8c02df5-1f26-497a-b446-cc1b88ccfca7
                Copyright: © 2019 Indian Dermatology Online Journal

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                History
                : October 2018
                : November 2018
                Categories
                Original Article

                Dermatology
                foxp3,psoriasis,regulatory t cells
                Dermatology
                foxp3, psoriasis, regulatory t cells

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