Aim: We investigate the effects of local training on the forearm vessels in patients with end-stage renal disease. Methods: Fourteen hemodialysis patients were included. Handgrip training was performed for 8 weeks. The following parameters were measured at the beginning of the study and 4 and 8 weeks later: forearm circumference, maximal handgrip strength, and artery and vein parameters, including endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation (using ultrasound and duplex Doppler scanning). Results: The maximal handgrip strength increased significantly. The radial artery diameters were significantly higher after 8 weeks of training. The endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was found to be significantly increased after 4 and 8 weeks of training. The maximal vein diameters increased significantly with training, with preserved distensibility. Conclusions: The present study suggests that regular handgrip training increases the diameters of forearm vessels. It also improves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. These changes point to the possible beneficial effects of daily handgrip training in chronic renal failure patients before arteriovenous fistula construction.