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      Non-culture-based methods to diagnose bloodstream infection: Does it work?

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          Abstract

          Bloodstream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Molecular methods for the detection of pathogens in blood have been developed. The clinical utility of these methods and their integration into the clinical workflow is discussed.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Outcomes of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign in intensive care units in the USA and Europe: a prospective cohort study.

          Mortality from severe sepsis and septic shock differs across continents, countries, and regions. We aimed to use data from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) to compare models of care and outcomes for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the USA and Europe. The SSC was introduced into more than 200 sites in Europe and the USA. All patients identified with severe sepsis and septic shock in emergency departments or hospital wards and admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and those with sepsis in ICUs were entered into the SSC database. Patients entered into the database from its launch in January, 2005, through January, 2010, in units with at least 20 patients and 3 months of enrolment of patients were included in this analysis. Patients included in the cohort were limited to those entered in the first 4 years at every site. We used random-effects logistic regression to estimate the hospital mortality odds ratio (OR) for Europe relative to the USA. We used random-effects linear regression to find the relation between lengths of stay in hospital and ICU and geographic region. 25 375 patients were included in the cohort. The USA included 107 sites with 18 766 (74%) patients, and Europe included 79 hospital sites with 6609 (26%) patients. In the USA, 12 218 (65·1%) were admitted to the ICU from the emergency department whereas in Europe, 3405 (51·5%) were admitted from the wards. The median stay on the hospital wards before ICU admission was longer in Europe than in the USA (1·0 vs 0·1 days, difference 0·9, 95% CI 0·8-0·9). Raw hospital mortality was higher in Europe than in the USA (41·1%vs 28·3%, difference 12·8, 95% CI 11·5-14·7). The median length of stay in ICU (7·8 vs 4·2 days, 3·6, 3·3-3·7) and hospital (22·8 vs 10·5 days, 12·3, 11·9-12·8) was longer in Europe than in the USA. Adjusted mortality in Europe was not significantly higher than that in the USA (32·3%vs 31·3%, 1·0, -1·7 to 3·7, p=0·468). Complete compliance with all applicable elements of the sepsis resuscitation bundle was higher in the USA than in Europe (21·6%vs 18·4%, 3·2, 2·2-4·4). The significant difference in unadjusted mortality and the fact that this difference disappears with severity adjustment raise important questions about the effect of the approach to critical care in Europe compared with that in the USA. The effect of ICU bed availability on outcomes in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock requires further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            New developments in the diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

            New techniques have emerged for the detection of bacteria in blood, because the blood culture as gold standard is slow and insufficiently sensitive when the patient has previously received antibiotics or in the presence of fastidious organisms. DNA-based techniques, hybridisation probes, and PCR-based detection or protein-based detection by mass spectroscopy are aimed at rapid identification of bacteria and provide results within 2 h after the first signal of growth in conventional blood cultures. Also, detection of microorganisms directly in blood by pathogen-specific or broad-range PCR assays (eubacterial or panfungal) shows promising results. Interpretation is complex, however, because of detection of DNA rather than living pathogens, the risk of interfering contamination, the presence of background DNA in blood, and the lack of a gold standard. As these techniques are emerging, clinical value and cost-effectiveness have to be assessed. Nevertheless, molecular assays are expected eventually to replace the current conventional microbiological techniques for detection of bloodstream infections.
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              A multiplex real-time PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of 25 bacterial and fungal pathogens from whole blood samples.

              Early detection of bloodstream infections (BSI) is crucial in the clinical setting. Blood culture remains the gold standard for diagnosing BSI. Molecular diagnostic tools can contribute to a more rapid diagnosis in septic patients. Here, a multiplex real-time PCR-based assay for rapid detection of 25 clinically important pathogens directly from whole blood in <6 h is presented. Minimal analytical sensitivity was determined by hit rate analysis from 20 independent experiments. At a concentration of 3 CFU/ml a hit rate of 50% was obtained for E. aerogenes and 100% for S. marcescens, E. coli, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, and A. fumigatus. The hit rate for C. glabrata was 75% at 30 CFU/ml. Comparing PCR identification results with conventional microbiology for 1,548 clinical isolates yielded an overall specificity of 98.8%. The analytical specificity in 102 healthy blood donors was 100%. Although further evaluation is warranted, our assay holds promise for more rapid pathogen identification in clinical sepsis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 June 2013
                : 3
                : 2
                : 97-104
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                [ 2 ] General Hospital, Novo Mesto, Slovenia
                [ 3 ] Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, University of Cologne, 50935, Cologne, Germany
                [ 4 ] Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, University of Cologne, Goldenfelsstr. 19-21, 50935, Köln, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ] +49-221-478 32100, +49-221-478 32124, achim.kaasch@ 123456uk-koeln.de
                Article
                2
                10.1556/EuJMI.3.2013.2.2
                3832087
                24265925
                Categories
                Review Articles

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