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      The effects of oral nutritional supplements in patients with maintenance dialysis therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

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          Abstract

          Background/objective

          This systematic review aims to determine the potential effects of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients receiving maintenance dialysis therapy (MDT).

          Methods

          Electronic databases were searched without language limits through to July 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved comparisons of ONS versus placebo or routine care are included in this meta-analysis. RevMan 5.3 statistical software was used for meta-analysis.

          Results

          15 articles with 589 subjects were included in our study. There are insufficient comparable data of randomized trials to allow meta-analysis of mortality. Albumin levels may be improved by the macronutrient blends or protein/amino acid supplements in MDT patients. Compared with the control group, serum albumin levels and BMI in the ONS group were increased by 1.58 g/L (95% CI, 0.52–2.63, P = 0.003; I 2 = 85%) and 0.40 kg/m 2 (95% CI, 0.10–0.71, P = 0.01; I 2 = 49%), respectively. In the subgroup analysis of patients receiving hemodialysis, albumin levels in ONS group were increased by 2.17 g/L (95% CI, 0.89–3.45, P<0.001; I 2 = 90%). ONS may not influence serum phosphorus and potassium levels.

          Conclusions

          Very low-quality evidence suggests that Short-term oral energy or protein/amino acid supplements may improve nutritional status by increasing serum albumin levels and BMI in MDT patients, without influence on serum potassium levels. High-quality and large RCTs, particularly regarding the effects of ONS on mortality and quality of life, are needed to further validate our findings.

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          Most cited references54

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          A malnutrition-inflammation score is correlated with morbidity and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

          Malnutrition inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) occurs commonly in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and may correlate with increased morbidity and mortality. An optimal, comprehensive, quantitative system that assesses MICS could be a useful measure of clinical status and may be a predictor of outcome in MHD patients. We therefore attempted to develop and validate such an instrument, comparing it with conventional measures of nutrition and inflammation, as well as prospective hospitalization and mortality. Using components of the conventional Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), a semiquantitative scale with three severity levels, the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS), a fully quantitative scoring system consisting of 7 SGA components, with total score ranging between 7 (normal) and 35 (severely malnourished), was recently developed. To improve the DMS, we added three new elements to the 7 DMS components: body mass index, serum albumin level, and total iron-binding capacity to represent serum transferrin level. This new comprehensive Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) has 10 components, each with four levels of severity, from 0 (normal) to 3 (very severe). The sum of all 10 MIS components ranges from 0 to 30, denoting increasing degree of severity. These scores were compared with anthropometric measurements, near-infrared-measured body fat percentage, laboratory measures that included serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and 12-month prospective hospitalization and mortality rates. Eighty-three outpatients (44 men, 39 women; age, 59 +/- 15 years) on MHD therapy for at least 3 months (43 +/- 33 months) were evaluated at the beginning of this study and followed up for 1 year. The SGA, DMS, and MIS were assessed simultaneously on all patients by a trained physician. Case-mix-adjusted correlation coefficients for the MIS were significant for hospitalization days (r = 0.45; P < 0.001) and frequency of hospitalization (r = 0.46; P < 0.001). Compared with the SGA and DMS, most pertinent correlation coefficients were stronger with the MIS. The MIS, but not the SGA or DMS, correlated significantly with creatinine level, hematocrit, and CRP level. During the 12-month follow-up, 9 patients died and 6 patients left the cohort. The Cox proportional hazard-calculated relative risk for death for each 10-unit increase in the MIS was 10.43 (95% confidence interval, 2.28 to 47.64; P = 0.002). The MIS was superior to its components or different subversions for predicting mortality. The MIS appears to be a comprehensive scoring system with significant associations with prospective hospitalization and mortality, as well as measures of nutrition, inflammation, and anemia in MHD patients. The MIS may be superior to the conventional SGA and the DMS, as well as to individual laboratory values, as a predictor of dialysis outcome and an indicator of MICS.
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            Malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome in dialysis patients: causes and consequences.

            Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and inflammation are common and usually concurrent in maintenance dialysis patients. Many factors that appear to lead to these 2 conditions overlap, as do assessment tools and such criteria for detecting them as hypoalbuminemia. Both these conditions are related to poor dialysis outcome. Low appetite and a hypercatabolic state are among common features. PEM in dialysis patients has been suggested to be secondary to inflammation; however, the evidence is not conclusive, and an equicausal status or even opposite causal direction is possible. Hence, malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) is an appropriate term. Possible causes of MICS include comorbid illnesses, oxidative and carbonyl stress, nutrient loss through dialysis, anorexia and low nutrient intake, uremic toxins, decreased clearance of inflammatory cytokines, volume overload, and dialysis-related factors. MICS is believed to be the main cause of erythropoietin hyporesponsiveness, high rate of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality and hospitalization in dialysis patients. Because MICS leads to a low body mass index, hypocholesterolemia, hypocreatininemia, and hypohomocysteinemia, a "reverse epidemiology" of cardiovascular risks can occur in dialysis patients. Therefore, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and increased blood levels of creatinine and homocysteine appear to be protective and paradoxically associated with a better outcome. There is no consensus about how to determine the degree of severity of MICS or how to manage it. Several diagnostic tools and treatment modalities are discussed. Successful management of MICS may ameliorate the cardiovascular epidemic and poor outcome in dialysis patients. Clinical trials focusing on MICS and its possible causes and consequences are urgently required to improve poor clinical outcome in dialysis patients.
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              EBPG guideline on nutrition.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: SoftwareRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Methodology
                Role: Data curationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Software
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                13 September 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 9
                : e0203706
                Affiliations
                [001]Department of Clinical Nutrition, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, China Academic Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, PR China
                Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, BRAZIL
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6450-6244
                Article
                PONE-D-18-20033
                10.1371/journal.pone.0203706
                6136747
                30212514
                e8d58742-9c14-432a-bcf8-0583b92617f6
                © 2018 Liu et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 9 July 2018
                : 25 August 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 4, Pages: 17
                Funding
                The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Proteins
                Albumins
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nephrology
                Medical Dialysis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Proteins
                Albumins
                Serum Albumin
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Mathematical and Statistical Techniques
                Statistical Methods
                Meta-Analysis
                Physical Sciences
                Mathematics
                Statistics (Mathematics)
                Statistical Methods
                Meta-Analysis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Physiological Parameters
                Body Weight
                Body Mass Index
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Physiological Parameters
                Body Weight
                Body Mass Index
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Health Care
                Quality of Life
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nephrology
                Chronic Kidney Disease
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

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