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      Papel del frijol negro Phaseolus vulgaris en el estado nutricional de la población guatemalteca Translated title: Effects of black bean Phaseolus vulgar consumption on the nutritional status of Guatemalan population.

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN. En Guatemala existe un fenómeno de superposición epidemiológica, en el que coexisten problemas de salud propios de países desarrollados con otros característicos de poblaciones en vías de desarrollo. Se observan deficiencias marcadas en algunos macronutrientes tales como hierro y vitamina A. en simultaneidad con enfermedades crónicas como diabetes tipo II o enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se conoce muy bien la importancia del frijol negro (Phaseolus vulgaris) en la dieta habitual de Guatemala, en donde el consumo per capita es de 70g al día. Además del aporte energético, los frijoles constituyen la principal fuente de proteína en la dieta y contienen un alto porcentaje de carbohidratos glicémicos de digestión lenta y carbohidratos no glicémicos fermentables en el intestino grueso. Estos últimos, pueden ejercer efectos fisiológicos beneficiosos relacionados con el control de la respuesta glicémica. de los niveles de colesterol sanguíneo y disminución de los factores de riesgo de cáncer colónico debido a la formación de productos de fermentación colónica (propiónico y butírico). Sin embargo, el frijol negro contiene también diversos factores antinutricionales (inhibidores enzimáticos. hemagluteninas, saponinas. ácido fitico, etc.) muchos de ellos termolábiles que pueden ser destruidos durante el procesado. La riqueza nutricional del frijol negro, y especialmente los carbohidratos glicémicos de digestión lenta, los compuestos no digestibles fermentados por las bacterias intestinales y algunos factores antinutricionales, juegan un papel importante en la etiología de numerosas enfermedades de incidencia actual en Guatemala.

          Translated abstract

          SUMMARY. Guatemala provides an example of epidemiological superposition. in which health problems typical of developed countries and developing countries are both observed. Nutritional deficiencies in some micronutrients like vitamin A and iron coexist alongside chronic diseases such as diabetes type II and cardiovascular diseases. The importance of black beans in normal Guatemala diet is well known:70g per capita of black beans in the are consumed daily. Black beans are an important sources of protein and energy in the diet. They contain "lente" digestion carbohydrates and a high proportion of non-digested carbohydrates that may be fermented in the large intestine. Theses types of carbohydrates associated with a low glycemic response, low serum cholesterol levels, and a decrease of colon cancer risk factors. These physiological effects may be related to colonic fermentation end products (propionic and butyric acids). Black beans also contain several antinutritional compounds (enzymatic inhibitor, haemaglutenins, saponins and phytic acid, etc.), some of them thermolabiles that are partially eliminated during culinary processes and may modify the nutritional quality of beans. Black beans play a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases in Guatemala.

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          Most cited references67

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          AHA Dietary Guidelines: revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association.

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            Bioavailability of minerals in legumes.

            The mineral content of legumes is generally high, but the bioavailability is poor due to the presence of phytate, which is a main inhibitor of Fe and Zn absorption. Some legumes also contain considerable amounts of Fe-binding polyphenols inhibiting Fe absorption. Furthermore, soya protein per se has an inhibiting effect on Fe absorption. Efficient removal of phytate, and probably also polyphenols, can be obtained by enzymatic degradation during food processing, either by increasing the activity of the naturally occurring plant phytases and polyphenol degrading enzymes, or by addition of enzyme preparations. Biological food processing techniques that increase the activity of the native enzymes are soaking, germination, hydrothermal treatment and fermentation. Food processing can be optimized towards highest phytate degradation provided that the optimal conditions for phytase activity in the plant is known. In contrast to cereals, some legumes have highest phytate degradation at neutral or alkaline pH. Addition of microbial enzyme preparations seems to be the most efficient for complete degradation during processing. Fe and Zn absorption have been shown to be low from legume-based diets. It has also been demonstrated that nutritional Fe deficiency reaches its greatest prevalence in populations subsisting on cereal- and legume-based diets. However, in a balanced diet containing animal protein a high intake of legumes is not considered a risk in terms of mineral supply. Furthermore, once phytate, and in certain legumes polyphenols, is degraded, legumes would become good sources of Fe and Zn as the content of these minerals is high.
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              Butyrate and trichostatin A effects on the proliferation/differentiation of human intestinal epithelial cells: induction of cyclin D3 and p21 expression.

              Sodium butyrate, a product of colonic bacterial fermentation, is able to inhibit cell proliferation and to stimulate cell differentiation of colonic epithelial cell lines. It has been proposed that these cellular effects could be linked to its ability to cause hyperacetylation of histone through the inhibition of histone deacetylase. To analyse the molecular mechanisms of butyrate action on cell proliferation/differentiation and to compare them with those of trichostatin A, a well known inhibitor of histone deacetylase. HT-29 cells were grown in the absence or presence of butyrate or trichostatin A. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were studied after DNA staining by crystal violet and propidium iodide respectively. Cell cycle regulatory proteins were studied by western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cell differentiation was followed by measuring brush border enzyme activities. Histone acetylation was studied by acid/urea/Triton acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Butyrate blocked cells mainly in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, whereas trichostatin A was inhibitory in both G(1) and G(2) phases. Butyrate inhibited the mRNA expression of cyclin D1 without affecting its protein expression and stimulated the protein expression of cyclin D3 without affecting its mRNA expression. Trichostatin A showed similar effects on cyclin D1 and D3. Butyrate and trichostatin A stimulated p21 expression both at the mRNA and protein levels, whereas their effects on the expression of cyclin dependent kinases were slightly different. Moreover, butyrate strongly stimulated the activity of alkaline phosphatase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, whereas trichostatin A had no effect. Finally, a six hour exposure to butyrate or trichostatin A induced histone H4 hyperacetylation. At 15 and 24 hours, histone H4 remained hyperacetylated in the presence of butyrate, whereas it returned to control levels in the presence of trichostatin A. The data may explain how butyrate acts on cell proliferation/differentiation, and they show that trichostatin A does not reproduce every effect of butyrate, mainly because of its shorter half life.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                March 2004
                : 54
                : 1
                : 36-44
                Article
                S0004-06222004000100006
                e8e21488-4dc2-4e81-a721-60cebd17c220

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Black beans,nutritional status,glycemic carbohydrates,non glycemic carbohydrates,dietary fibre,protein,antinutritional factors,Frijol negro,estado nutricional,carbohidratos glicémicos,carbohidratos no glicémicos,fibra dietética,proteína,compuestos antinutricionales

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